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In this chapter we will discuss how we classify living things, what the different levels are, how we name living things, and how to use a dichotomous key.

Robert Williford

on 10 February 2015

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Transcript of Classification

In this chapter we will discuss how we classify living things, what the different levels are, how we name living things, and how to use a dichotomous key.
The Science of Classification
The Six Kingdoms
The Two Kingdoms of Bacteria
Plantae and Animalia
Protista and Fungi
Dichotomous Keys
Modern Classification
Naming Names
What is the Basis for Classification?
What is Classification
Levels of Classification
Why Classify?
Classification: Sorting it all out.
classification -
the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities.
Classifying living things makes it easier for biologists to find the answers to many important questions, including the following:
- How many known species are there?
- What are the characteristics of each?
- What are the relationships between these species?
Classification is based on a system of shared characteristics and relationships between one another.
kingdoms -
the largest most general group
phylum -
one step down from kingdoms. The members of one phylum have more in common than members of another phylum.
classes -
an even more narrowed down group than phylum
orders -
each class is divided into one or more orders that are even more narrowed down
families -
subdivisions of orders
genus -
subdivisions of families
species -
the final conclusion of narrowing down a group. these are all the same type of organism and can breed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
Carolus Linnaeus was a swedish biologist who lived in the 1700's. He attempted to classify all known organisms only by their shared characteristics. This founded a new type of science called

taxonomy -
the science of identifying, classifying, and naming living things.

This type of science later showed the relationships that lead to the beginning of the theory of evolution.
Branching Diagrams are the tool used by scientists today to show relationships between organisms.
In naming organisms, scientists use Latin as a universal language. Organisms are given a two part scientific name. The first part identifies the genus and the second part identifies the species.

Example: Elephas maximus is the scientific name for the indian elephant. Elephas = genus and maximus = species
Dichotomous keys
- a special guide that aides in identifying unknown organisms. It consists of several pairs of descriptive statements that have only two alternative responses. You follow the descriptive statements until you have narrowed down what species of organism you are looking at.
Archaebacteria -
have been on earth at least 3 billion years. You can find these living in extreme environments.
Plantae -
The complex multicellular organisms that are capable of doing photosynthesis.
Protista -
consists of single celled eukaryotic cells. Examples include protozoa which are animal like, algae which are plant like, and slime molds which are fungi like. These are all more complex than bacteria but still microscopic.
Eubacteria -
the other thousands of types of bacteria that are more modern. They live in soil, water, and inside our bodies.
Fungi -
are very similar to plants but do not obtain energy from photosynthesis. Decomposers like mold and mushrooms.
Animalia -
complex multicellular organisms that can usually move and are capable of reacting to their surroundings.
Domains: the largest differences among organisms
Bacteria - prokaryotes that usually have a cell wall and reproduce by cell division.

Archaea - prokaryotes with different cell walls. They live in extreme environments.

Eukarya - all eukaryotes. Protists, plants, fungi, and animals
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