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Daphnia Magna and the Big Bad Toxin

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Zoe K

on 24 May 2013

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Transcript of Daphnia Magna and the Big Bad Toxin

Daphnia Magna
and the
Big Bad Toxin Zoe Kaznelson Procedure Procedure Procedure Procedure Procedure Procedure Background Research/Introduction 8. Now, cut the ends of five pipets to create a large opening for the daphnia magna. 1. Put 500 ml of springwater to a graduated cylinder which will be the 0.00% of ammonium sulfate. 2. Get five 100 ml graduated cylinders and put a piece of tape on each one. 5. Then, take out five plastic cups and label those as well. 6. Pour 70 ml of the water in the graduated cylinder into the plastic cups. 7. The put the corresponding amount of ammonium sulfate into each filled 70 ml plastic cup (0.02% = .10 grams, .03%= .15 grams, .04% = .20 grams, .05%= .25 grams). What's This Project? When you hear the word toxic, you might think of danger. You might think of a substance that can hurt or harm you. Toxic substances can hurt humans; but at what levels? I conducted an experiment to find what happens to a living creature, daphnia magna, in different levels of ammonium sulfate- NH4(2SO4). I payed close attention to the dying rate of the cultures when I exposed them to different levels of ammonium sulfate. I decided on this topic because in the past experiments I have done, I had never worked with live specimen and this is a very exciting change for me. This experiment is very important to the world because ammonium sulfate is used as a fertilizer for our crops. A toxic matter is going on what we eat and I figured out what ammonium sulfate really does to living things. I predicted that all of the daphnia magna would die in every cup with ammonium sulfate in it (the only cup that I predicted would still have daphnia magna in it is the one with no ammonium sulfate). In this experiment, daphnia magna was tested. It is a living thing, just like you or your family. But unlike humans, daphnia magna is a water flea and only has a lifespan of about forty days and they reproduce many eggs. Being careful when being around daphnia magna is very important because they are very sensitive. Research says not to “wash your hands with soap/detergent just before you put your hands in a daphnia culture unless you’ve thoroughly rinsed your hands because soap and detergents are toxic to daphnia.” In this experiment, ammonium sulfate was tested. Ammonium sulfate is toxic. While working with this toxin, being careful is very important; like wearing gloves when handling it and it is preferable to wear goggles as well. It is unsafe to breathe it in or get it in a body or in someones eyes. According to research, ammonium sulfate “accounts for about 4% of the world nitrogen fertilizer market,” and it is an “odorless white powder.” Water is a very important part of our lives. Humans need water to survive and so do the daphnia magna. This small water flea lives in water but they can only live in freshwater, such as water found in a stream. They can not live in tap water because of the different chemicals that are in it. Adding a toxic substance to their water would change the chemical balance and this would kill them. But did it? Question
What is the dying rate of daphnia magna when they are in an environment with ammonium sulfate? Hypothesis
If a certain number of daphnia magna are submitted into water with different amounts of ammonium sulfate, then we will find that they will all die because they are sensitive to water’s chemical composition so adding a toxin will make them all get sick and die. Variables
Manipulated: The different quantities of ammonium sulfate in each cup
Responding: The number of daphnia magna that die
Controlled: The number of daphnia magna that are placed in each cup Materials
Five 100 ml Graduated Cylinders
One 500 ml Graduated Cylinder
Clean Bottled Water that totals up to 1,000 ml (NOT tap water!)
A Container of Ammonium Sulfate
Plastic Gloves
Twenty-five Daphnia Magna
Permanent Marker
Five Pipets
Five Plastic Cups 3. Use a permanent marker to write the concentration of the solution that will be introduced in the graduated cylinder. 4. Place 100 ml of springwater in 100 ml graduated cylinders. Procedure 9. With one cut pipet, pick up five alive daphnia magna and place them into one of the cups. 10. Then throw away that pipet and get a new one. 11. Repeat step #10 and #11 for each cup until you finish filling all of the cups. 12. After 24 hours have passed, see how many daphnia magna have died (moving daphnia magna are considered alive and non-moving daphnia magna are considered dead) and fill out Table #1. Combined Trials Second Trial (note- only two daphnia magna were able to be used per cup due to temperature
change and many of them passed away before we could conduct the experiment) Data The moment of truth!!! First Trial Average of Both Trials (note- only two daphnia magna were able to be used per cup due to temperature
change and many of them passed away before we could conduct the experiment) Second Trial (note- only two daphnia magna were able to be used per cup due to temperature
change and many of them passed away before we could conduct the experiment) First Trial This picture shows ammonium sulfate being weighed. Here I am, airing out the daphnia magna before they get put in the cups. You can see them floating around! From the data, you can see that all of the cups with ammonium sulfate did not sustain life for 24 hours, although daphnia magna have very short lives to begin with. One moment they can be awake and swimming, and the next they can be dead, floating at the bottom of the cup. According to research, ammonium sulfate isn’t flammable, but dangerous if it touches your skin, which it did to me (but thoroughly washing hands makes it okay). If it must be this dangerous to humans, just how dangerous is it to small creatures? Daphnia magna needs a comfortable environment. Nothing too hot or too cold and with clean water; polluted water could also kill them. Adding ammonium sulfate definitely did a lot to them. In conclusion, the hypothesis was proven correct. All of the daphnia magna that were put in a cup with any ammonium sulfate at all had a 100% dying rate. Ammonium sulfate is something we are exposed to, sometimes, everyday. Because it is in a fertilizer, it goes in on our fruit and vegetables. Also, what about the farmers who are around dangerously high levels of ammonium sulfate all the time? It is very dangerous to be breathed in, on your skin, and worst of all, consumed. Recently, there was an explosion in Texas at a fertilizing plant. As Mr. Zymeck, the principle at The Computer School, said, the explosion probably started with a fire and because fertilizer can be flammable under certain conditions, the fertilizer plant blew up. Some things that could have created an error in the experiment is that on the way to the house to place the ammonium sulfate into the cups, some of the water spilled out and more than half of the daphnia magma died mostly due to the cold, leaving only two daphnia magna left per cup. Also, the ammonium sulfate could have been incorrectly measured because the ammonium sulfate had to be worked with up to a hundredth of a gram. Another experiment that could be based off of this one is to grow a simple plant like basil and use natural cow poop fertilizer for one batch of basil and for the other batch of basil, ammonium sulfate would be used with cow poop fertilizer and the growth of the basil would be documented over a week. Also a cup of water could be given to them each day and they would both be outside. Daphnia magna and ammonium sulfate is just the start of my experimenting. Thank you for watching!!! " Ammonium Sulfate | IHS Chemical." IHS Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ihs.com/products/chemical/planning/ceh/ammonium-sulfate.aspx>.
"Daphnia." Home of the Rainbowfish. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <http://rainbowfish.angfaqld.org.au/Daphnia.htm>.
"celbar.com." celbar.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <celbar.com/wp-content/themes/celbar/assets/pdf/Ammonium%20Sulfate.pdf>.
"cfb.unhiedu." cbf.unhiedu. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <cfb.unhiedu/CFBKey/html/Organisms/CC/adocera/FDaphniadae/GDaphnia/Daphnia_magna/daphniamagna.html>.
"chemistry.slss.ie." chemistry.slss.ie. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <chemistry.slss.ie/resourses/downloads/ph_sd_md_ammoniumsulfate.pdf>.
"public.wsu.edu." public.wsu.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <public.wsu.edu/~rlee/biol103/circulation.pdf>.
"www.cems.wm.edu." www.cems.wm.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <www.cems.wm.edu/~dhemenwa/WaterGarden/Daphnia%20for%20control%20of%20algae/Daphnia.pdf>.
"www.chemicalland21.com." www.chemicalland21.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <www.chemicalland21.com/industrialchem/inorganic/AMMONIUM%20SULFATE.htm>. "sc-29085.pdf." sc-29085.pdf. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2013. <datasheets.scbt.com/sc-29085.pdf>.

MLA formatting by BibMe.org. Bibliography 10. Then throw away that pipet and get a new one. oooo 00000 OOOO death This graph shows the dying rate of the daphnia magna. All of the cups that had ammonium sulfate contained no alive daphnia magna. This graph shows that in this trial, half of the daphnia magna stayed alive but only in the cup without ammonium sulfate. The average data shows that the dying rate for cups #1, #2, #3, and #4 is the same in both trials and the combined trials. oo m 0 0 o o d d 0 0 d 00 m
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