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WDM

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by

Lahav Zeno

on 23 June 2013

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Transcript of WDM

Light
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
Wave
Light is a physical phenomenon characterized by a wave and movement of photons.
The speed of light is 300,000,000 m/s (3.0p8) in a vacuum, and it hardly varies at all in most media. This constant is the ultimate speed limit of the universe,.
By being a wave, it is characterized by wavelength amplitude and frequency.
Light
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
WDM - Wave Division Multiplexing
WDM is a method of transmitting data from different sources over the same fiber optic link at the same time whereby each data channel is carried on its own unique wavelength.

Just like Prism!
Why???
Transferring many services over a single fiber pair allows users:
•To save on fiber lease/buy costs.
•To upgrade networks with new services over existing fibers
•To outsource “dark” WDM channels instead of dark fiber
•To build networks with much larger throughput than with any other technology.
Agenda
Media Types
Fiber Optics
Light
Waves basics
Wavelengths
Multiplexing
WDM
CWDM
DWDM
WDM Limitations
Questions
Lets Start..
Media Type
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has different pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

Common Media types are:
•Copper - The Common one, The cheapest media type
•Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz - Flexibility and infrastructure oriented concers.
•RF
•Satellite
•Microwave
•Cellular
•Fiber Optics - has the highest bandwidth rates
We are going to talk about fiber optics and how to maximize it's
bandwidth capacity.
As we explained before, Wavelength the distance between two crests. Different wavelengths in the light interpreted by the human brain as colors, from red wavelengths to violet largest shortest wavelength. You can see the rainbow of colors and their wavelength.
But the colors that the human eye can see it’s just a small part of a large spectrum.
Wavelength
Same principle of dividing the spectrum to colors (wavelengths) is being used in WDM - Wave Division Multiplexing.
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
Multiplexing (also known as muxing) is a method by which multiple data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share an expensive resource.
The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel, which may be a physical transmission medium. The multiplexing divides the capacity of the high-level communication channel into several low-level logical channels, one for each message signal or data stream to be transferred. A reverse process, known as demultiplexing, can extract the original channels on the receiver side.

A device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (MUX), and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (DEMUX).

Common types of multiplexing are:
TDM - Time Division Multiplexing
FDM - Frequency Division Multiplexing

And the one that we are going to review today:
WDM - Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Multiplexing
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made of glass or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber.

Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication.

Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference.

The main reasons to use fiber optics are:
Longer Distances
Bandwidth - basically unlimited (based on transmitter)
Reaches 100gbps in our days and keep growing.
Resiliency in front of crosstalking and EM interference.
Fiber Optics
Lets understand what is light...
As we explained, we use fibers to carry data.
Fibers can carry a certain spectrum of light.
This certain spectrum’s wavelengths can be used and being multiplexing by WDM is splitted into bands:
Fiber Optics Bands
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
Media
Media is the material which carries the signal from one point to another.
Different medium has deferent pros and cons, most of the time we’ll choose the media type concern our desired bandwidth, cost and infrastructure.
The media is located and the way the node access it is represented at layer 1 and 2 in the OSI model.

• Copper
• Wireless 2.4 /5 Ghz
• RF
• Satellite
• Microwave
• Cellular
• Fiber Optics
Common Media types
Two Types of WDM:
Coarse WDM
A standard of channel spacing grid (ITU-T G.694.2).
Using the wavelengths from 1470 nm through 1610 nm with a channel spacing of 20 nm.

Dense WDM
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) refers originally to optical signals multiplexed within the wavelengths between 1525–1565 nm (C band), or 1570–1610 nm (L band). with 0.2nm channel spacing.
WDM Types
Three core problems car occur by using light to transmit data:
Attenuation - During travailing across medium the signal sent is loosing it’s strength an becomes unclear because of “white noise”. the attenuation is a factor of the distance.
therefore, we’ll amplify the signal and shape it to be clear with valid SNR ratio.

Dispersion - is a phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency. what cause different wavelength arriving unsynchronized to the end of the fiber.

Saturation - occurs when the signal is too powerful. causing the receiver to be saturated.

All of the above are requiring us a careful planning at the physical level when trying to implement and debug WDM networks.
Problems of using light
Amplify
Dispersion
Any Questions ???
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Written By Lahav Zeno
Full transcript