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Elements and Principles of Art and Design

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megan hoffman

on 12 June 2017

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Transcript of Elements and Principles of Art and Design

Elements and Principles of Art and Design
Color and Value
But really what can line do for your drawings?
Line is the most basic element in art, there are tons of types of lines that make up every art work in the history of time
line can change your work of art in two ways it will make it great, or it will make it terrible
The trick is to learn how to use line in the right situation to create a successful work of art
You also have implied lines, Sometimes they are cool and mostly they are tricky. These are lines that are not directly draw but are created based on the relative space between two or more objects.
When lines are bad!
Lines can be bad, when there is too many pointless lines your art work gets distracting and unattractive
Or if you use line to outline everything your work becomes flat and graphic and often boring
Shapes are made of lines
when two or more lines come together they make a shape!

When you are creating shapes, you are breaking down your subject into organic and geometric shapes. Organic and Geometric, When we use these terms in art we are describing the characteristics of the lines and shapes. Organic is free flowing and natural, like swiggles, and clouds. Geometric is man, made and easily measurable, like a square, triangle, or circle. NOTICE CIRCLE IS CURVY BUT IS GEOMETRIC
when you place shapes together you get

Forms Space

Movement Pattern

See how we use all elements and principles together?

Movement/ Rhythm and pattern
Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color.
A shade is when you add black to a color making it darker
A tint is when you add white to color making it lighter
A tone is when you add grey to a color making it muted or dulled.

You can use value to measure the depth of an object.
color is an extreamly import element of art because it can be used with any other elemenet or principle to create a successful work of art. For example you can't always use balance and emphasis together.
Color is used in so many ways to convey tons of feelings and emotions, that appeal to people. That attraction is what gets people to buy art work, the pull of the painting
texture brings to life your art work. It is the fine detail that gives your work that extra ump
Different kinds of textures

Texture is the surface quality of an art work. It can be implied or actual/visual texture

Implied texture means that the art work is made to look like a certain texture. For example this
looks like wood grain, that texture is not actually wood grain, it is drawn to look that way

Actual/visual texture is the physical properties of the art work, mostly related to 3D works of art. However, you can talk about the physical properties of paint.

Space is the area around an object It can be positive or negative, and determines the organization of composition.

Space can be used to create depth using foreground, middle ground, background, and sometimes optical illusions
positive and negative space

Unity happens when all the elements and principles are in agreement or harmony and there is a balance to the whole of the art work
To create unity, you can use these methods:

sense of distance between elements
ability to seem repeatable with other elements
the sense of having a line or pattern extend
elements being copied or mimicked numerous times
: is achieved when recurring position, size, color, and use of a graphic element has a focal point interruption.
Altering the basic theme achieves unity and helps keep interest.
Movement refers to the arrangement of elements to move your eye through the art work. There are two types of Movement, Static and Dynamic.

Movement can be shown by
manipulating shapes, lines, forms and curves
creating diagonal lines to show movement
Changing the value can create movement
similar over lapping shapes can show movement
Pattern: Refers to the repeating of a motif, shape, line, color in a recognizable organization
Balance is when there is an equilibrium in the picture. Or their is equal weight in the image
Balance can be symmetrical asymmetrical, or radial
Proportion is using different sized objects to create the mood , feeling, or point of the art work
Emphasis is when you use other elements or principles to force the viewers eye to one point
There are Three types of line you should focus on, Implied, Contour and Gesture
Contour lines are like outlines, they define an object. Contour line drawing are extreamly simple drawings that give you a base for what to draw.
Gesture lines are free flowing and organic. They a series of lines that build up the shape you are tring to achieve. Gesture drawings are used to help define a form in space.
Forms are made by connecting shapes together to get 3d representations of themselves.
Forms can be 3D or 2D here are examples of 2D forms. We use forms to show depth.
Positive space is the area inside of the object
Negative space is the area outside of an object.
Here we can a more complicated piece.
The white outside the bear is Negative or positive
The black of the bear is N or G
The white bear is N or G
What are the eyes of the bears N or G?
Then finally Space can be measured and drawn out with Linear Perspective. You have one point, two point and three point perspective.
One point
assumes you are looking directly at something
Two Point assumes you are lookin a the corner of something
Three point/birds eye view assumes you are looking down or up at something.
Also notice that the points are also called vanishing points. There are the points where all lines will run to. In Three point, all vertical lines run to the same point, and all horizonal lines go to either the left or right depending on the side of the drawing they are on. This is complicated and we will go over this more in depth later.
Contrast is the differences in value, colors, and textures in order to achieve emphasis

We can find all types of contrast in art works. Can you name the ways we used contrast in these images?



Concept or Idea

Historical or Humor

Black and White or High contrast
You can use almost any element or principle to create emphasis, but three easy ways are:

Color, Proportion, Contrast
Patterns use simple colors and shapes to create symbols and have been used over and over again as a way of communicating ideas throughout history.
Perfect example is Adinka Cloth from Africa. Different symbols have different meanings and they take these symbols to create patterns for beautiful, meaningful works of Art.
Static movement is when your eye tends to jump and hop through the image, and uses patterns, shapes and colors
Dynamic movement is when your eye flows smoothly though the image and uses gradations.
indicates a type of movement in an art work, often by repeated shapes or colors. It is similarly related to patterns, only more complex. A beat is to a Rhythm like a pattern is to a Rhythm. Rhythms are made up of beats, or patterns.
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