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Microbiology Assignment.

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Nurien Amaliena Rosmi

on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of Microbiology Assignment.

Microbiology Assignment
Topic : Antibotics Resistant Superbugs
Lecturer's name : Dr. Lionel

1001335437 Nurin Amalina Rosmi
1001335380 Teoh Chin Ying
1001335421 Lai Si Yeu
1001335649 Nurul Aisyah Mohd Jafriddin
A population of bacteria. A few of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: has the ability to neutralize or escape the effect of the antibiotic.
How it happens?
Antibiotic resistance occurs when an
antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth
; in other words, the bacteria are "resistant" and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic.
antibiotic resistance
are substances that can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria, commonly used to fight bacterial infections, but are not effective against infections caused by viruses.
Antibiotic resistance
refers specifically occurs among bacteria that cause infection which resistant to antibiotics.
The difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance.
Drug-Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
What is MRSA?
also known as oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA)
bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body
resistant to some commonly used antibiotics
tougher to treat than most strains of staphylococcus aureus
Sign & Symptoms
most commonly colonizes at nostrils while others are at the respiratory tract, open wounds, and the urinary tract
mild infections on the skin, like sores or boils may be accompanied by fever and occasionally rashes
serious skin infections
What is Neisseria Gonorrhea?
Risk Factors
People with weak immune systems (HIV/AIDS, or cancer sufferers; transplant recipients, severe asthmatics, etc.)
Young children
The elderly
Woman with frequent UTIs or kidney infections due to infections in the bladder
also known as gonococci (plural), a species of Gram-negative coffee-bean shaped diplococci bacteria
responsible for STD which is known as gonorrhea
rapidly multiply in mucous membrane especially in mouth, throat etc
transmitted through sexual contact (vaginal, anal, oral) or spread from mother to child at birth
- infect surgical wounds, the bloodstream, the lungs, or the urinary tract
- MRSA infections may affect your:
Screening programs
Surface sanitizing
Hand washing
Restricting antibiotic use
antibiotics kills normal bacterias that causing illness to discharge the body from infection
the antibiotic-resistant bacteria
and take over. some
infect their DNA
to other bacteria causing viral infection.
greenish yellow or whitish discharge from the vagina and penis
lower abdominal or pelvic pain
burning sensation while urinating
conjunctivitis (red, itchy eyes)
painful or swollen testicles
swelling of the vulva (vulvitis) causes itching
modern use of antibiotics have caused a
huge increase
in the number of resistant bacteria:constant use of antibiotic breed SUPERBUGS.
antibiotic resistance is driven by
of antibiotics, which encourages bacteria to develop new ways of overcoming them and leads to antibiotic resistance among bacteria (APUA. 2014)

are the drug or chemical substances that either kill or slow the growth of microbes.
Antimicrobial resistance
is a broader term, encompassing resistance to drugs to treat infections caused by other microbes as well, such as parasites (e.g.
), viruses (e.g.
) and fungi (e.g. Candida).
(WHO. 2014)
causes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women
PID can damage the fallopian tubes and also cause epididymitis in men that leads to infertility if untreated
also cause arthritis
gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints.
people with gonorrhea can more easily contract HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
Risk factors
Unprotected sex
Multiple sex partners
Having other sexually transmitted infections
Using latex condoms
Water-based spermicides
Have regular check-ups if sexually active
If you have an STD, don't have any form of sex until all partners have been treated
caused by bacteria that are spread from person to person through air
TB usually affects the lungs, brain, kidneys, or spine.
TB is treatable and curable
Sometimes TB bacteria become resistant which means that the drug can no longer kill the bacteria.
A bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer
Chest pain
Coughing up blood
Weakness or fatigue
Weight loss
No appetite
Risk Factors
Senior citizens
Person with medical conditions that have weak immune system (HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, organ transplants, severe kidney disease, etc)
Stay home
Ventilate the room
Cover your mouth
Wear a mask
Recent news about antibiotic resistant superbug.
30 April 2014
25 June 2014
1. A molecule derived from the fungus in Nova Scotian soil is able to disarm a gene found in many antibiotic-resistant “superbugs which also known as AMA.

2. It’s target is NDM-1 or New Delhi Metallo-beta-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1 is an enzyme resistant to carbapenems which is global antibiotic to treat bacterial infections).

3. NDM-1 needs zinc to survive. The scientists found that the fungus molecule was able to remove the zinc “naturally and harmlessly,” cause the gene to be ineffective.
Action to prevent antibiotic resistance
1. Preventing infections and spread of resistance.

Example :immunization, safe food preparation, handwashing, and using antibiotics as directed and only when necessary
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) gathers data on antibiotic-resistant infections which are

-Causes of infections.
-Risk factors that caused some people to get a resistant infection.

Thus, experts can develop specific strategies to prevent those infections and resistant bacteria from spreading use these information.
3. Improving antibiotic prescribing.
1. Change the way antibiotics are used by choosing the right antibiotics.

2. Administer them in the right way in every case which also known as antibiotic stewardship.

3. Use it safely when needed to treat disease.

4. Stopping the unnecessary use of antibiotics in people and animals will help in slowing down the spread of resistant bacteria.
-Reduces the amount of antibiotics.
-Reduces the development of resistance.

1. Antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria have now spread to every part of the world and might lead to a future where minor infections could kill, according to World Health Organization( WHO).

2. Other reports have found antimicrobial resistant bacteria doesn't only exist in public places but it's also starting to show up in our homes.

3. WHO found very high rates of drug-resistant E. coli bacteria, which causes problems including meningitis and infections of the skin, blood and the kidneys.
Kate Kelland, 2014. 'Superbugs' that can overpower antibiotics are spreading: WHO. United Nation, 30 April. 25.
APUA. 2014. What is Antibiotic Resistance and Why is it a problem?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/antibiotic_res.shtml. [Accessed 13 July 14].
WHO. 2014. Antimicrobial resistance. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/. [Accessed 13 July 14].
CDC, Dr. Tom Frieden, 2013. Antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic Resistance Threats, [Online]. People at specially high risk, 24. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf [Accessed 13 July 2014].
CBS/AP. (2014). Antibiotic-resistant "superbugs" spread worldwide.. Available: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/antibiotic-resistant-superbugs-spread-worldwide/. Last accessed 15 July 2014.
Puvic, S. (2014). Nova Scotia soil fungus could help fight antibiotic resistant superbugs. Available : http://www.ctvnews.ca/health/nova-scotia-soil-fungus-could-help-fight-antibiotic-resistant-superbugs-1.1885744. Last accessed 15 July 2014.
Fighting back against antibiotic resistance( 2013). Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 . Available : http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf . Last accessed 15 July 2014.
Cdc.gov, (2014). STD Facts - Gonorrhea. [online] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/stdfact-gonorrhea.htm [Accessed 17 Jul. 2014].
Mayoclinic.org, (2014). Tuberculosis Definition - Diseases and Conditions - Mayo Clinic. [online] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tuberculosis/basics/definition/con-20021761 [Accessed 17 Jul. 2014].
Mayoclinic.org, (2014). Tuberculosis Prevention - Diseases and Conditions - Mayo Clinic. [online] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tuberculosis/basics/prevention/con-20021761 [Accessed 17 Jul. 2014].
Std-gov.org, (2014). Gonorrhea Prevention. [online] Available at: http://www.std-gov.org/stds/gonorrhea_prevention.htm [Accessed 17 Jul. 2014].
Webmd.com, (2014). Gonorrhea-Prevention. [online] Available at: http://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/tc/gonorrhea-prevention [Accessed 17 Jul. 2014].
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