Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Eukaryotic Cells: The Inside Story

No description
by

on 24 November 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Eukaryotic Cells: The Inside Story

Cell membrane

The cells of plants and algae have a hard cell wall made of cellulose.
The cell wall provides strength and support to the cell membrane
. When too much water enters or leaves a plant, the cell wall can prevent the membrane from tearing.

Eukaryotic Cells: The Inside Story
Eukaryotic Cells: The Inside Story
Back then scientists did not really know what cells were made of. Cells are small that the details of their structure could not be seen until better methods of magnifying and staining were developed. Now we know that cells are complex, especially eukaryotic cells.

-OBJ
Obj- Describe each part of a eukaryotic cell.
Obj- Explain the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell.
Obj- Describe the differences between animal cells and plant cells

Holding It all Together

All cells have outer coverings that separate what is inside the cell from what is outside the |cell. One kind of covering, is called the cell membrane. Some cells have an additional layer |outside of the cell membrane called the cell wall.

The cells library

The largest and most visible organelle in eukaryotic cell is the nucleus means nut or kernel. As you can see the nucleus is covered by a membrane through which materials can pass. The nucleus has often been called the control center of the cell. As you know it stores the DNA that has information on how to make all of the cells proteins. The nucleolus stores the materials that will be used later to make ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Protein Factories

he building blocks of all cells, mare made up of chemicals known as amino acids.
These amino acids are hooked together to make proteins at very small organelles called ribosomes. Ribosomes are the smallest but most abundant organelles.
All cells have ribosomes, because all cells need proteins to live. Unlike most other organelles, they do are not I covered with a membrane.

The cells Delivery system

Eukaryotic cells have an organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum which is shown.
The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is a membrane compartment that makes lipids and other materials for use inside and outside the cell
. It is also the organelle that breaks down drugs and certain other chemicals that could damage the cell. The ER is also the internal delivery system of a cell. Substances in the ER can move from one place to another through it's many tubular connections sort of like cars moving through tunnels.

Chloroplasts

Plants and algae have an additional kind of energy-converting organelle, called a chloroplast. The word Chloroplast means "green structure." Chloroplast has two membrane and structures that look like stacks of coins. They are flattened membrane-covered sacs that contains an important chemical. Chlorophyll is what makes chloroplasts green. It is also what makes chloroplast a power plant for the cell.
The energy is trapped by chlorophyll and used to make sugars. This process is called photosynthesis. The sugar that is produced is used by mitochondria to make ATP.

The Cells Power plants

Today we use many sources of energy, oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and garbage. We all end this energy to do all sorts of things, such as heat our homes, fuel for our cars and buses, and to cook our food.

Mitochondria

Inside all cells, food molecules are "burned" to release energy. The energy is transferred to a special molecule that the cell uses to get work done. This molecule is called ATP.
ATP can be made at several locations in eukaryotic cells, but most of it is produced at bean shaped organelles called mitochondria
. These organelles are surrounded by two membranes. The inner membrane, which has many folds in it, is where most of the ATP is made.

Endosymbiotic theory

Many scientists believe that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as prokaryotic cells that were eaten by larger cells. Somehow they did not get digested and survived. This theory on the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts is called the endosymbiotic theory. A piece of evidence of why many scientists think this is that mitochondria and chloroplasts are about the same size of bacteria. The second is that both are surrounded by two membranes. If the theory is correct, the outer membrane was created when the bacteria was eaten by the bigger cell. Other evidence says that they both have the same kind of ribosomes and circular DNA as bacteria.


The Golgi complex is the organelle that ships out proteins and other materials that need to be processed. This cell is named after the Camillo Golgi, an Italian scientists who discovered it first. The Golgi complex looks like the ER, but it is located closer to the cell membrane.
Lipids and proteins from the ER are delivered to the Golgi complex. This is where they are modified for different functions. The final products are enclosed in a piece of the Golgi complexes
The cell’s packaging center

The Cell’s storage Centers

All eukaryotic cells have membrane-covered compartments called vesicles. Some of them form when part of the membrane pinches off ER or Golgi
complex. Others are formed when part of the cell membrane surrounds the object outside of the cell. This is how white blood cells engulf other cells in the body.

Packages of destruction

Lysosomes are special vesicles in animal cells that contains enzymes. When a cell engulfs a particle and encloses it into a vesicle, lysosomes bump into these vesicles and pour enzymes into them. Lysosomes destroy worn-out or damaged organelles. They also get rid of waste materials and protect the cell from foreign invaders. Sometimes lysosome membranes break, and the enzymes spill into the cytoplasm, killing the cell. This is what must happen for a tadpole to become a frog. Lysosomes cause the cells in the tadpole’s tail to die and dissolve as the tadpole becomes a frog. Before you were born lysosomes caused destruction of cells that formed the webbing between your fingers. The function of the nucleus is to contain the cell’s DNA and is the control center of the cell. Ribosomes is site where amino acids are hooked together to make proteins. For endoplasmic reticulum is to make lipids, break down drugs and other substances. It also packages up proteins for release from the cell. The function of mitochondria is to break down food molecules to make ATP. Chloroplasts function is to make food using energy of sunlight. The Golgi complex processed and transports materials out of the cell. The job of the vacuole is to store water and other materials. Finally the function of lysosomes is to digest food particles, wates, cell parts, and foreign invaders.
Vacuoles

Most plant cells have a very large membrane-covered chamber called the vacuole. Vacuoles are storage containers for water and other liquids. Vacuoles that are full of water help to support other cells.
Some plants will wilt when their cell vacuoles lose water. To get a crispy lettuce for a salad, all you have to do would be to fill up the vacuoles with water. Vacuoles is what makes roses red and violets blue, it is a colorful liquid stored inside the vacuole. Vacuoles also contain the sour and sweet juices that are associated with lemons, oranges, and other fruits.Some unicellular organisms that live in freshwater environments have a problem with too much water entering the cell. They have a special structure that can squeeze excess water out of the cell. It works very close to the way that a pump removes water from a boat.

Plant or animal

Both plant cells and animal cells have a cell membrane, and they both have nuclei, ribosomes, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes and lysosomes. But plants have things that animal cells do not have such as a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a large vacuolehave



The cell is like a cit in many ways, one way is that the cell membrane is like all the buildings that surround the city. ANother way is the with the nucleus, the nucleus is like the mayor of the city, he is the center of the city and has the information of the city. There are many many other ways how a cell is similar to a city, another one is ribosomes. Ribosomes is like a city because small people or the amino acids make up a store, then the proteins make up many of the same buildings, and the amino acids is like a big company. Endoplasmic reticulum is like the mail system, the substances from the ER are moved from one place to another through many tubular connections, sorta of like cars going through tunnels. The mitochondria is like a motorcycle that just got filled with fuel and then uses the fuel to go some where. The mitochondria make ATPS. These ATPS are made by food breaking down and releasing energy. The chloroplasts is like someone using solar energy, for their apartment or house, the chloroplast traps the energy from the light and uses it to make electricity. The Golgi complex is like having someone come to your house or apartment and remodel. The Golgi complex has lipids and proteins from the ER delivered, where they are modified for different functions. Vesicles are like taxis, they would transport proteins and other things to the Golgi complex. The vacuoles are related to the city like stores, they store water and other liquids. Lysosomes are like a landfills, because they destroy worn out or damaged organelles, just like how landfills do.

How the cell is like a city

The cell is like a city in many ways, one way is that the cell membrane is like all the buildings that surround the city. ANother way is the with the nucleus, the nucleus is like the mayor of the city, he is the center of the city and has the information of the city. There are many many other ways how a cell is similar to a city, another one is ribosomes. Ribosomes is like a city because small people or the amino acids make up a store, then the proteins make up many of the same buildings, and the amino acids is like a big company. Endoplasmic reticulum is like the mail system, the substances from the ER are moved from one place to another through many tubular connections, sorta of like cars going through tunnels. The mitochondria is like a motorcycle that just got filled with fuel and then uses the fuel to go some where. The mitochondria make ATPS. These ATPS are made by food breaking down and releasing energy. The chloroplasts is like someone using solar energy, for their apartment or house, the chloroplast traps the energy from the light and uses it to make electricity. The Golgi complex is like having someone come to your house or apartment and remodel. The Golgi complex has lipids and proteins from the ER delivered, where they are modified for different functions. Vesicles are like taxis, they would transport proteins and other things to the Golgi complex. The vacuoles are related to the city like stores, they store water and other liquids. Lysosomes are like a landfills, because they destroy worn out or damaged organelles, just like how landfills do.

New terms
New Terms:
Cell wall, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplast, Golgi complex, vesicles, vacuoles, and lysosomes.
Full transcript