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A2 PE Psychology 20 mark question - Leadership

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by

Mark Whittingham

on 1 November 2013

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Transcript of A2 PE Psychology 20 mark question - Leadership

The Plan
1. What is trait theory
2. What is Social Learning Theories
3. What is the Interactionist approach
4.Positive/Negative of each with...
5. A sporting example to support knowledge
6. What is an autocractic leader? and when would that be more suited. Use this to explain how it changes behaviour
7. Repeat 6 for democratic leader
8. Any personal comment

How do we set out our responses?
It is highly recommended that we follow this format for 8-12 Indicative content points to obtain a high level answer.
1. Make your point (I.C)
2. Explain that point, what do we mean by that statement
3. Use a sporting example to support your answer
4. Give a positive or negative about this point.
5. Make an impact statement, why is this point so important
Level Discriminators
Level 2 (8-12 marks):
at least two theories explained with evidence of at least one being critically evaluated. At least one style described with limited reference to how it might affect lifestyle behaviour
A2 PE Psychology 20 mark question - Leadership
How to complete a 20 mark question
The question was from January 2012 and the topic was on Leadership...
1st point...as a group
Lets consider the following point about Trait theory in relation to leadership.

Trait theory states that behaviours are pre-determined rather than learned.
Some Sports' Psychologists state that 'good leaders in sport are born and not made'
Critically evaluate the trait, social learning and interactionist theories of leadership.
Describe how autocratic and democratic leadership styles might affect lifestyle behaviour
Where do we start?
Level 1 (0-7 marks):
Show basic knowledge and understanding of theories. Describe theories rather than critically evaluate. Styles described with little reference to how they might affect lifestyle behaviour
Level 3 (13-17 marks):
Good knowledge and clear understanding of the three theories. All three are analyzed with good attempt at critical evaluation for at least one theory. Both positive and negative aspects of theories explored for at least one theory. Good knowledge of styles with good attempt at addressing how they affect lifestyle behaviour.
Level 4 (18-20 marks:
detailed knowledge and excellent understanding of all three theories of leadership.
Detailed analysis and excellent critical evaluation of all three leadership theories.
Both positive and negative aspects of theories are explored well.
Detailed knowledge of both leadership styles effectively appleid to lifestyle behaviour.

A well structured, balanced answer
Trait theory states that behaviours are pre-determined rather than learned.
This means that we should be able to predict our behaviour based on the situation as we are born with these traits.
For example, a sports performer may demonstrate the traits of confidence or assertion which under trait theory are enduring traits and not ones that we have developed.
A negative of this is that it doesn't take into consideration the environment or behaviour we can learn.
It is important to recognise that although we may predict how a certain individual will react in a situation it is impossible to state with confidence that the behaviour will be pre-determined.
Your turn...
Pick one of the Indicative points from below and expand upon this statement to a high standard
I.C4 Traits of leadership: Leadership influence may be affected positively or negatively by your innate personality characteristics. e.g. extroversion may help with leadership or confidence
I.C7 Social learning: Learn through copying significant others/role models. In sport this may be the copying the most successful/high profile leaders
I.C9 Interactionist: Interaction of traits with the environment or traits can be triggered by environmental factors. e.g. the environment triggering certain behaviour traits.
Autocractic leader
To ensure we get this higher marks on this question we need to be able to explain what each style of leader is, but then more importantly link to how they affect lifestyle behaviour
Lets consider our first response, what is an autocratic leader?
An Autocratic leader is task orientated.
What this means is that they feel the task being complete is most important.
For example when there is very little time left in a basketball game a coach may call a timeout to design a play that they would expect the team to follow.
A real positive of this style is that it is very useful when time is short or to ensure beginners are given the information they need to progress.
A very important style of leadership to ensure skills are learned and that athletes are only focusing on the key information to progress to the next stage.
How does it affect lifestyle behaviour?
Your turn...
Write a high quality answer to one of these I.C's for how autocratic leadership affects lifestyle behaviour
I.C14: Will have a strong message to influence (positively or negatively). Leader is confident

I.C15: May be intimidated into following the leader. Fear of not conforming.

I.C16: Novices more likely to be influenced. They do not have the experience to form their own judgements
I.C17: Males more likely to be influenced.
I.C18: Good for large groups
I.C19: Good for hostile groups or dangerous situations
Democratic leader
A democratic leader is when decisions are shared within the group.
This means the leader values the opinions of others.
An example of this would be a coach speaking to an experienced team about what the best way of scoring from a free-kick in football is.
This is an excellent style of leadership to help improve the team cohesion and motivation of the team. If athletes know their opinions matter they are more likely to carry on playing and working hard towards the team goal.
How might a democratic leader affect lifestyle behaviour?
What is different between the two that an individual may respond better to?
Create a high quality answer from any of the following I.C's
I.C22: Motivated to follow because friendlier approach
I.C23: Small groups would respond well
I.C24: Intermediate or experienced exercisers would respond well
I.C25: Females more likely to respond positively
I.C26: Good for friendly or positive groups/individuals
H/W: Create a level 4 answer
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