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Baudrillard and Lyotard
Transcript of Baudrillard and Lyotard
Grand narrative or “master narrative” is a term introduced by Jean-François Lyotard in his classic 1979 work The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, in which Lyotard summed up a range of views which were being developed at the time, as a critique of the institutional and ideological forms of knowledge.
Why is this Important?
This is important because postmodern people do not believe in metanarratives. They feel that there are no grand stories which give meaning to all of life and which define what is true. Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998), the postmodern philosopher, said: “Simplifying to the extreme, I define postmodern as incredulity towards metanarratives.”
Acting out or mimicking an actual or probable real life condition, event, or situation to find a cause of a past occurrence (such as an accident), or to forecast future effects (outcomes) of assumed circumstances or factors. A simulation may be performed through (1) solving a set of equations (a mathematical model), constructing a physical (scale) model, (3) staged rehearsal, (4) game (such as wargames), or a computer graphics model (such as an animated flowchart). Whereas simulations are very useful tools that allow experimentation without exposure to risk, they are gross simplifications of the reality because they include only a few of the real-world factors, and are only as good as their underlying assumptions.
Postmodern media rejects the idea that any media product or text is of any greater value than another. All judgements of value are merely taste. Anything can be art, anything can deserve to reach an audience, and culture ‘eats itself’ as there is no longer anything new to produce or distribute. The distinction between media and reality has collapsed, and we now live in a ‘reality’ defined by images and representations – a state of simulacrum. Images refer to each other and represent each other as reality rather than some ‘pure’ reality that exists before the image represents it – this is the state of hyper-reality. All ideas of ‘the truth’ are just competing claims – or discourses and what we believe to be the truth at any point is merely the ‘winning’ discourse.
Baudrillard was born in Reims, northeastern France, on July 27, 1929. He told interviewers that his grandparents were peasants and his parents were civil servants. During his high school studies at the Reims Lycée, he came into contact with pataphysics (via the philosophy professor Emmanuel Peillet), which is said to be crucial for understanding Baudrillard's later thought. He became the first of his family to attend university when he moved to Paris to attend Sorbonne University. There he studied German language and literature, which led him to begin teaching the subject at several different lycées. While teaching, Baudrillard began to publish reviews of literature and translated the works of authors
Hyperreality is a term used in semiotics and postmodern philosophy to describe an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technologically advanced post-modern societies. Hyperreality is seen as a condition in which what is real and what is fiction are seamlessly blended together so that there is no clear distinction between where one ends and the other begins