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The 5 Themes of World History
Transcript of The 5 Themes of World History
Theme 3: State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict
Theme 2 : Development and Interaction of Cultures
Theme 4: Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems
Theme 1 : Interaction between Humans and the Environment
Theme 5: Development and Transformation of Social Structures
Chinampas: 600 CE- 1450
Political structures and forms of governance
Nations and nationalism
Revolts and Revolutions
Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations
Agricultural and Pastoral Production
Trade and Commerce
Industrial Revolution: 1750-1900
Need for raw materials, Desire for exotic goods, and An effort to become 'more civilized"
This led to major demographic changes, social shifts, and political revolutions.
Russia & Japan: 1750-1900
The Emancipation of the serfs (Russia)
Industry,education,railroads, and foreign investors (Russia)
Matthew Perry forces Japan to open ports (Japan)
Encourages Westernization of education, military, banking (Japan)
Capitalism and Socialism
Gender Roles and Relations
Family and Kinship
Racial and Ethnic Constructions
Social and Economic Classes
Early Latin America: Sociedad de Castas
Based on COLOR, STATUS, and OCCUPATION
ORDER (from top to bottom): Europeans, Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Slaves and Native Americans
In 1650, the castas made up 5 to 10 percent of the population of Spanish America
"Forget not that the earth delights to feel your bare feet and the winds long to play with your hair."
Malaria: 1900- present
From the 16th C to 19th C, over 12 million Africans were forced to migrate to the Americas.
These Africans brought and mixed their culture and heritage with the dominant culture of the area.
For Example: In Haiti: Creole= French + West African languages.
Classical China: 600 BCE- 600 CE
Ox- drawn Plow (Zhou Dynasty: 1029- 258 B.C.E)
Collar invented for draft animals (Han Dynasty :202 B.C.E - 220 C.E.)
The Empire of Mali and Sundiata: 600 CE- 1450
The use of Hoes, Bows, Crop Rotation, and in some places, Irrigation
Rice in the river valleys , Millet, Sorghums, some wheat, fruits, and vegetables
Post classical Western Europe: 600 CE- 1450
Moldboard plow: allowed deeper turning of soil
Three field system: helped land to regain nutrients
Arab Traders: 600 CE- 1450
In Mecca & Medina, merchants and Bedouins traded and enjoyed city life.
Islamic empires trade with Africa and Europe, working with Jews and Christians.
Control Indian Ocean trade
Age of Exploration (1450-1750) The New Global Economy
Dependent nations (Latin America & Africa) provided raw materials and labor to Europe.
Europe produced a finished product and traded with themselves and Dependent nations.
China or the Muslim Empire were not involved
African Slave Trade: 1450- 1750
Africans brutally captured and sold other Africans to slavery in the Americas and in the Trans- Saharan .
Women as concubines --> Middle East
Men as Farmers and Laborers --> Americas
Russian Serfdom: 1450-1750
Many farmers fell into debt and were under the control of the noble landowners
The Russian government encouraged this practice by passing laws to tie the serfs to land.
600 BCE- 600 CE
Greek-Roman gods & goddesses
Ethnocentrism is the idea that one's culture is better than another. Although this idea has not been widely known throughout World History, one can see it in every society from Mesopotamia to the modern world.
For example: During it's history, China has sheltered itself from the rest of the world because they believed they were better and more superior than anyone else. This belief prevented them becoming a major global power during the early modern period
Another example: Europeans, eager to become rich and forget the Middle Ages, colonized the Americas, Africa, India, and parts of the Indies. They felt that the natives were animal- like and the native's culture was primitive. This led to an effort to impose "more civilized" European culture.
India: Varnas/ Caste System
ORDER (from top to bottom): Brahmins/Priests, Kshatriyas/Warriors, Vaisyas/Traders, Farmers, Sundras/Laborers, Untouchables
Developed during the Vedic and Epic ages
The groups are hereditary and there are smaller subgroups with the five major classes called jati.
American Revolution: (1775–1783 Industrialization and Global Integration)
Taiping Rebellion: 1850's- early 1860's
The French&Indian War left Great Britain in serious debt. The British felt their American colonies should pay for the damgaes because the war was fought on their lands. However, the American colonists did not believe that was fair especially when, at the time, there was no American representative in the British parliament. After a series of events, the American colonists declared their independence from Great Britain on July 4, 1776.
Hong Xiuquan and his army tried to overthrow the already ailing Qing Dynasty and Confucian philosophy in China. However, Hong and his followers became corrupt and without the support of the Europeans, the cause fell apart.
Modern Settlement Patterns:
The Holy Roman Empire
Began during the time of the Han Dynasty
Prospective bureaucrats took exams that covered Classic Chinese literature and law.
Usually upper class men held positions in the bureaucracy, but men of lower classes were able to earn a spot.
Although all power was given to the emperor, bureaucrats could control the ideas of the emperor.
The bureaucracy allowed the control of huge empire like China
Aristocrats and the highly educated elite ruled
Had many specialized offices and the officials close to the emperor were eunuchs
Provincial governors were appointed the bureaucracy controlled the military
Controlled the church
According to Confucianism, parents can do no wrong. Parents were allowed to punish their children by beating and even killing them. Women were subordinate and Elders were given the utmost respect Families were seen as the smaller model of the empire.
Nomadic Societies: 600 CE- 1450
Filial Piety: 600 BCE- 600 CE
Enlightenment Period: Europe (1750-1900)
European parents allowed the children to have a "childhood." At this time, children were seen as active participants of the family. Parents made an effort to spend time with their children.
Established on 9.9.1999
An organization formed inside the United Nation
It main goal to promote solidarity and unity between african nations and to rid the continent of former imperial rule and apartheid
North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Implemented on January 1, 1994
Removes any trade barriers between Mexico, the United States, Canada
North Atlantic Free Trade (NATO)
April 4th, 1949
A political and military alliance
promotes democratic policies
Operations: Afghanistan, Kosovo, Counter-piracy, Monitoring the Mediterranean, Supporting the African Union
Demography and Disease
India, China, Japan, parts of Southeast Asia, much of the Middle East, and Madagascar and the East African Coast opposite Zanzibar, Anatolia, and the Caucuses (1817-1823)
Europe, North Africa, and the eastern seaboard of North America (1826-1837)
The same regions as the second and parts of south and central Europe (1841-1859)
Cholera spread from the Ganges River to the Americas through trade and contaminated food and water. As the population begins to grow and crowd in the same area, people are more to susceptible to disease especially when needed resources like clean water is not available
Responsible for the decline of many of the city-state populations in
(4th century BCE)
The Panama Canal
Malaria Control in War Areas
(Military Training Bases in the southern United States and its territories)
Indonesia, Afghanistan, Haiti, Nicaragua, and most of Sub- Saharan Africa
known to suffer from Malaria
"The emergence of drug resistance, widespread resistance to available insecticides, wars and massive population movements, difficulties in obtaining sustained funding from donor countries, and lack of community participation made the long-term maintenance of the effort untenable." `CDC
In 70 AD, the Romans capture Jerusalem and the Jews flee Palestine. They migrate north of Jerusalem, to Southeast Asia, and Northern Africa. Eventually there were Jews in all parts of the Roman Empire. These Jews incorporated their history and culture with the native culture of the land they inhabited.
For example, the Sephardi Jews lived on the Iberian Peninsula until 1492. Today, they speak Judeo- Spanish, a mixture of Spanish and Hebrew
Atlantic Slave Trade:
Patterns of Settlement
The Neolithic Revolution:
to 600 B.C.
Humans began discovering ingenious ways to plant foods and domesticate animals like the pig. As agriculture became more developed and advanced, people began to permanently settle and this led to villages where groups of people support each other.
Countries began to shift from hand made materials to machine made. Desperate for jobs, people moved in the city where the factories and jobs were. Many countries like Great Britain saw huge population increases in their cities. This led to bigger ghettos and disease.
People are moving to areas where they can get a job. If your job wants you to work in Texas, you will have to move to Texas.
In classic Mediterranean civilization (Ancient Greece & Rome), people believed gods and goddesses oversaw human life. These gods were responsible for different aspects of human life. For example, Apollo was responsible for the sun, Poseidon/Neptune was the ruler of the sea, and Ares/Mars was the god of war.
600 BCE- 600 CE
In the 7th C, the prophet Muhammad set the foundation for a new religion centered around the God Allah. Today, Muslims base their faith around the Five Pillars, which includes making a hajj to Mecca, paying a Zakat for the poor,and fasting during the month of Ramadan
600 CE- 1450
Beliefs Systems, Philosophies, and Ideologies
Mandate of Heaven/ Dynastic Cycle: 600 BCE- 600 CE
The belief that "God" has given this family the right rule for this a certain period of time (dynasty)
When the dynasty begins to become corrupt and unfit to rule, the family has lost their mandate.
The family who wins the fight for the throne earns the mandate and they will start a new dynasty
Science & Technology
River Valley Civilizations: to 600 B.C.
- Math, Arches, Columns, Ramps, Cuneiform( the first known known case of human writing)
-Calendar, 365 day solar year, 12 months of 30 days, Numbers
- Ideographic symbols, Astronomy, Roads, Canals, Coin Money, Production of Cast Iron
Scientific Revolution: 1450-1750
- The planets moved around the Sun
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
- Study of planetary motion
- Improved the telescope, the Father of Modern Science
- demonstrated that blood moves around the body through a circular movement
- the importance of a skeptical review of all received wisdom
- The Laws of Motion, The Laws of Gravity
The Arts & Architecture
Mosques: 600 CE- 1450
During the Reign of the Umayyads, mosques were designed using the architecture of the from the classical period.
Animals and humans could not be used , so Muslims focused of geometric designs, colorful ceramic tiles, and semi precious stones.
Renaissance: 600 CE- 1450
Cultural and political movement in western Europe; featured a literature and art more secular than those of the Middle Ages
Shakespeare, Cervantes, Rabelais
Leonardo De Vinci, Michelangelo, Rafael, Donatello
Yoruba people (Nigeria): 600 CE- 1450
Terra-cota and bronze portraits heads of past rulers
Objects were realistic and highly stylized
This group of African art allows historians to understand Yoruba culture.
Roman Empire: 27 B.C.- 395 C.E
Byzantine Empire: 600 CE-1450
Chinese Empire: 600 BCE- 600 CE
After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church was the only solid organization in Western Europe. The Pope was the top leader, bishops were second in command, and local priests were appointed to administrate small churches. Some monarchs and local lords appointed themselves as bishops. Charlemagne established this empire around the year 800.
After the Death of Muhammad, there were many arguments about the the successor of the Prophet and many left the faith. This led to the Ridda Wars and the Umayyads were able to unify the Arabian Peninsula through Islam. The empire began to attack the Sasanian and Byzantine Empire. After the Umayyads, the Abbasids took over.
Julius Caesar was assassinated in the Senate, ending the Roman Republic.
Augustus becomes the first Caesar.
Pax- Romana- 200 yrs of peace in the Empire.
In 294 C.E. , Diocletian (the last Roman Emperor/Caesar) splits the empire into Eastern Rome (Byzantine Empire) & Western Rome.
The Byzantine Empire with it's capital Constantinople and it's emperor Constantine is known as the Second Rome.
Islamic Sudanic Kingdom: Built many mosques and Supported preachers
Based on Agriculture and extensive trade with south Africa and the Middle East
Political Institutions allowed great regional and ethnic differences
The Empire of Mali: 13th C- 15 C
Great Leaders: Sundiata & Mansu Musa
Prussia and Austria: the most powerful German states
The area spoke a common Language (Deutsch) and shared a common culture
Established a United German states and created a national parliament
Established after the fall of the Austrian- Hungarian Empire (1918)
Although many people held individualistic national identities, the state was held to together through totalitarian , communist rule
In 1991, Croatians, Bosnians, Slovenians proclaimed independence and a civil war broke out
Problems did not full resolve until 2006
beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth that had been placed in frames made
17 ft long and 100 to 330 ft wide
Tenochtitlan was a giant chinampa
Yield of crops very high
Cotton Gin: 1750- 1900
created by Eli Whitney in 1794
Machine removes seeds from cotton grain
Expedited the process and helped cotton become a major cash crop
slaves did not have to hurt themselves
People's Republic of China: 1900-to present
The Nationalist Party led by Mao Zedong were able to take control from the Guomindang after the Japanese invasion in 1949
Social and Economic Reforms benefited the peasants
Land Reforms, access to education, and improved health care
military protection for the peasants
Pre- Islamic Arabia
Greater Freedoms than most civilizations
Key economic roll like weaving
Allowed multiple marriages
Men paid bride price to family of bride
No veils or seclusion
Women greatly influenced the family and the right to be heard
could own property and walk freely to the town and the countryside
Women rode and hunted with their husbands
Women's Rights: 1900- to present
The World Wars gave women opportunities to work in factories and hold jobs usually reserved for men.
As the society became more secular, women began to earn more freedom and rights
During the 1900's, most countries allowed women to vote.
Today, there are some areas like India and Saudi Arabia where women are treated unfairly, but organizations like the U.N. and the ACLU have fought against the mistreatment.
19th C United States
During the beginning of the century, raw materials and human labor help build a massive manufacturing sector
Workforce was dependent
People from all parts of the country and immigrants could migrate to the city, work, and live a steady middle class life
The World Wars helped the economy
Throughout history, Asiatic countries have remain relatively secluded. China felt superior to other kingdoms and nations and closed itself off to the world at the beginning of the Qing. Japan and the islands like Indonesia are secluded because of natural barriers. This seclusion has allowed Asians to have the same distinctive facial features.
For centuries, the Americas have been a huge melting pot. Europeans voluntarily migrated while Africans were forced. WIth the already present native Americans, these races mixed. Anybody whose family has lived in the Americas has some type of african, native american, and european blood.
After the death of Christ, Christians immediately began to spread the word of God across the Roman Empire. Although many times the Christians were persecuted, Emperor Constantine declared the Christianity as a major religion of the Byzantine Empire. As time a gone, the Church has divided into many braches.