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Parts of Speech and their Functions

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Trisha Perry

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of Parts of Speech and their Functions

Nouns
A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.
Common Nouns
Person, place, thing, or idea

Ex: The
boy
went to the
library
to get a
book
about different
types
of
religion
for a
research paper.
Proper Nouns
Specific person, place, thing, or idea

Ex:
Maggie
went to the
Whitley County Library
to get a book entitled "
Jewish Religion
" so that she could better understand how
Judaism
affected the life of
Elie Wiesel
during his time spent at
Auschwitz
during
WWII
.
Concrete Nouns
Exists in a physical or material substance

Ex: The
books
at the end of the
bookshelf
belong to
Miss Perry
.
Pronouns
A pronoun takes the place of a noun.
An antecedent is the term used for the word that the pronoun replaces.
Personal Pronouns
Refer to the person speaking, the person spoken to, or the person spoken about

Ex:
I
am going to
her
house tonight although
I
don't know how to find
it
.
Reflexive Pronouns
Compound personal pronoun that "reflects" the action of the verb back to the subject
-ends in "-self" or "-selves"

Ex: They can defend
themselves
in the state tournament
.

Intensive Pronouns
Compound personal pronoun that is used for emphasis
-ends in "-self" or "-selves"

Ex: Miranda can drive
herself
to the game.
Prepositions
A preposition is a word that shows how a noun or pronoun is related to some other word in a sentence.
Prepositions
Aboard, about, above, across, after, against, along,
amid
, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond,
but
, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, over, past, since, through, throughout, to, toward, under, underneath, until,
unto
, up, upon, with, within, without...

Ex: I am going
to
the football game
by
myself even though I hate
to
go
without
someone to keep me company.
Compound Prepositions
According to, as for, because of, by way of, except for, in front of, in spite of, instead of, on account of, out of, regardless of, with regard to...

Ex:
According to
Mrs. Bishop, AR tests need to be completed using Renaissance Learning.
Understanding Prepositional Phrases
Prepositional Phrase - contains a preposition, a noun called the object of the preposition, and additional modifiers

Ex: Sleeping
through English class
proved to be a fatal mistake when Miss Perry decided to give a pop quiz.
Adjectives
An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.
-Which one?
-What kind?
-How many?
-How much?
-Whose?


Verbs
A verb shows action or a state of being
Adverbs
An adverb describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
-Where? -How often?
-When? -To what extent?
-How? -Why?
-Under what condition?

Conjunctions
A conjunction joins words or groups of words to other parts of the sentence.
Interjections
An interjection is an exclamatory word that is not related to any other word in the sentence.
Interjections
Ex:
Ouch!
Get off of my foot!

Well,
I do not know that the decision you
made was very wise.

Oh,
I am sorry that you cannot come.

Aha!
I knew that you were involved in
planning the surprise party.
Adjectives and Proper Adjectives
Ex:
Those
books do not belong to me.

Proper Adjective - word formed from a proper noun or a proper noun used as an adjective

Ex:
Italian
food is delicious.
Definite and Indefinite Articles

Definite article - "the" - refers specifically to someone or something as distinguished from others of the same class

Indefinite articles - "a" and "an" - refer to someone or something as merely one among others of the same class
-Use "a" before words that begin with a consonant sound; use "an" before words that begin with a vowel sound
Action Verbs
An action verb shows physical or mental action

Physical action: kick, swallow, walk, talk...
Mental action: think, believe, hope, imagine...


Ex: I
thought
long and hard before I
answered
the question.
Linking Verbs
Links a word in the predicate to the subject

Am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been...
Taste, feel, smell, sound, look, appear, become, seem, grow, remain, stay...


Ex: Brian
was
the student everyone went to for additional help in class.


Adverbs
-Words that end in "-ly" can often be adverbs (although they are NOT always adverbs)

Ex: He ran
quickly
toward the end zone.

-The word "not" or the contraction "n't" is often an adverb (although not always, they are the majority of the time)

Ex: He will
not
arrive home until the week
before Christmas.
Coordinating Conjunctions

Join words, phrases, or clauses or EQUAL grammatical rank

"FANBOYS"
For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So
Subordinating Conjunctions
Joins clauses of UNEQUAL grammatical
rank; they join dependent and independent clauses

after, although, as, as if, as much as, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, lest, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while...
Parts of Speech and their Functions

Abstract Nouns
Names a quality, state, activity, or general idea

Ex:
Strength
and
physical endurance
are
qualities
that nearly every athlete must obtain.
Collective Noun
Names a group or a collection

Ex: The
football team
will be introduced tonight during "Meet the
Redhounds.
"
Compound Noun
Two or more words that function as a single noun

Ex:
Macaroni and cheese
is often a favorite dish of young children.
Interrogative Pronouns
Ask a question
-Who?
-Whom?
-Whose?
-Which?
-What?

Ex:
Who
is going to the football game on Friday night?
Demonstrative Pronouns
Point out the person or thing referred to
-This
-That
-These
-Those

Ex:
This
book needs to go onto
that
bookshelf.
Indefinite Pronouns
Do not definitely point out persons or things and do not usually have an antecedent.

-Each, either, neither, one, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody
-Both, few, several, many, some, any, none, all, most

Ex:
Each
student needs a pencil and a pen for the test.
Relative Pronouns
Introduce a dependent clause
-Who
-Whom
-Whose
-Which
-That

Ex: The most rewarding thing
that
you can do this year is to always do your best.
Helping Verbs
Functions in a verb phrase and helps the main verb to make a statement

Am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, have, has, had, do, does, did, shall, will, should, would, may, might, must, can, could...

Ex: I
could have

gone
to the birthday
party, but I stayed home to do
homework instead.
Correlative Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions that are used in pairs

either-or
neither-nor
both-and
not only-but also
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