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Human Body Systems: The Respiratory System

Year 8 Science Project by Charis

Charis Y

on 16 July 2013

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Transcript of Human Body Systems: The Respiratory System

The Respiratory
System Upper respiratory tract Characteristics & Structure 1. Air enters the lung from the nose/mouth and then to the trachea/windpipe How Do All the Structure's Work Together? Common respiratory diseases treated by respiratory care physicians and other specialists : Illness, Injury, Disease what is it's function: The Respiratory System: the human body systems: Labeled Diagrams The function of the human respiratory system is to Transport air to the lungs Supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body Mouth, nose and nasal cavity: They're function is to warm, filter and moisten incoming air Pharynx: Here the throat divides into the trachea and oesophagus. There is a small flap of cartilage called epiglottis which prevents food from entering the trachea Larynx: Also known as the voice box and is where sound is generated Lower Respiratory tract Trachea: The wind pipe that carries air from the throat into the lungs. The inner membrane is covered in tiny hairs called cilia, which catch particles of dust and remove it through coughing. Bronchi: The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi, one entering the left and one entering the right lung. The left is more narrower, longer and more horizontal than the right. Once inside the lungs they split in several different ways forming tertiary bronchi Alveoli: Individual hollow cavities contained within alveolar sacs (or ducts). They have very thin walls that permit the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide through tiny capillaries by which they are surrounded by. There are approximately 3 million aveoli in an average adult lung Diaphragm: It is a broad band of muscle which extends across the bottom of the rib cage and separates the thorax form the abdomen. It is the main muscle used in breathing Different Cells in the Structure Characteristics and Structure: The System Explained Labeled Diagrams Circulatory System: Body System's Interact Drawn by Me! The Respiratory System 15 scientific words about the respiratory system: Glossary: • Asthma - constriction of hypersensitive airways;
• Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - lung disease causing shortness of breath;
• Chronic Bronchitis - inflammation and permanent scarring of the bronchial tubes
• Emphysema - damage to air sacs walls causing loss of elasticity;
• Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleural membrane lining lungs and the chest cavity;
• Lung Cancer - malignant tumors that develop in lung tissue
• Acute Bronchitis-inflammation of the bronchial tubes;
• Influenza - serious infection cause by the influenza virus;
• Pneumonia - infection of the lungs caused by a virus or bacteria;
• Sinusitis - inflammation of the sinus cavities;
• Common Cold - infection caused by a virus; The lungs are where the body is able to engage in gas exchange between the blood and the air. The circulatory system sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where it is again oxygenated and returned to the heart, so it can be pumped to tissues and organs throughout body. Your body works similarly to a machine, with different systems that make up your body and allow it to run effectively. Nervous System It has total control over all other systems. Systems of the body respond to signals sent out by the brain, which are delivered through the spinal cord. Skeletal and Muscular System The skeletal system provides protection for the nervous system; the skull is a protective carriage that encases the brain. Bones in the spine protect the spinal cord. The skeletal system works closely with the muscular system to provide form, support and to help people move. The skeletal system also provides protection for the heart, lungs and kidneys. Digestive System It works with all the body systems to provide nutrients and energy to all body parts. It provides nutrients to systems to help them grow and function normally. Respiratory System It works with all other systems of the body. The respiratory system provides oxygen for all body parts. It also removes carbon dioxide from all over the body Urinary System It works with all other systems of the body. It is used to clean blood from the body. This system cleans waste products from the skeletal, muscular, digestive, respiratory, circulatory and nervous systems. 2. The air goes through the trachea and into smaller air tubes, bronchi, which end in tiny air sacs, alveoli 3. The oxygen in the air breathed in passes through the thin walls of the alveoli and into the blood in the capillaries 4. From here the oxygenated blood rushes through the body 5. THe blood coming back into the lungs from the body contains carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli and is breathed out Breathe In
Breathe Out......
Repeat Respiratory: The process of exchanging oxygen from the air for carbon dioxide from the body Gas exchange: Primary function of the lungs; transfer of oxygen from inhaled air into the blood and carbon dioxide into the lungs Symptom: Any indication of disease noticed or felt by patient; in contrast, a sign of illness is an objective observation Thorax: The part of the body of a mammal between the neck and abdomen Membrane: Thin, flexible film of proteins and lipids that encloses the contents of a cell Capillaries: Microscopic blood vessels with very thin walls that allow substances in the blood to pass Airways: Tubes that carry air into and out of the lungs Duct: A passage or tube with well-defined walls for the passage of air or liquids Oesophagus: The tube leading from the mouth to the stomach Cells: The building blocks of all living Diffusion: the gradual mixing of substances caused by the random movement of particles from a region of high concentration tot a region of lower concentration Tissue: A group of similar cells organised to do a particular job in the body, for example muscle tissue Ribs: Bones attached to the spine and central portion of the breastbone, which support the chest wall and protect the heart, lungs and other organs in the chest Inhale: filling the lungs with fresh, oxygen-rich air Exhale: The breathing out and discharge of stale air, also allowing you the ability to talk The nasal Cavity, upper pharynx, trachea and bronchi lined with PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM Parts of the pharynx (oropharynx) have STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM Mucosa of the trachea is surrounded by a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE Trachea has SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS Smaller bronchi lined by PSEUDO-STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS Bronchioles have either COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM or CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM Alveoli have simple SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM (type 1 cells), SEPTAL cells (Type 2 Cells) Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Connective tissue Muscle Tissue 15 16 14 13 11 Simple Squamous Epithelium 17 1 & 2 1 & 2 3 4 6 2 9 7 8 10 7 & 19
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