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Transcript of Drugs
Chemical substances that act primarily upon the central nervous system (Brain and spinal cord) where it alters brain function, resulting in changes in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, and behavior
Basically they are anything that can alter your state of mind, perception, or your mood
Medical usage = Glaucoma, nausea in cancer, relieves pain in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients.
Stored in fatty tissue for several weeks. Can detect up to a month later from the last use (DRUG TEST = BUSTED)
Arm of a heroin addict
Intoxication begins as a “high” feeling
Followed by symptoms that include
Euphoria, inappropriate laughter and grandiosity, sedation, lethargy, impairment in short-term memory, difficulty carrying out complex mental processes, impaired judgment and motor performance, decreased depth perception, distorted sensory perceptions, distortion of time (passing slowly)
*****dependent on dosage – anxiety, paranoia
Hallucinations may be present
Immediate Effects of Smoking Marijuana
Why do people smoke marijuana?
Gateway Drug: A gateway drug is a drug that can open the door to the use of other, harder drugs.
Hallucinogen - A drug that causes hallucinations (profound distortions in a person's perceptions of reality). Under the influence of hallucinogens, people see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that seem real but do not exist. Some hallucinogens also produce rapid, intense emotional swings.
Tolerance – How much of a drug is needed to be in someone’s body to achieve the desired effect
The Marijuana of today is a different and much more potent substance than the marijuana of the 60’s and 70’s…..
“Today, marijuana is strong enough to change the trajectory of a kid’s life.”
Andrea Grubb Barthwell
White House Office of National Drug Control Policy
Ecstasy – MDMA
Effects – Stimulant and hallucinogen
Side Effects = muscle tension, rapid heart heat, impaired memory, high blood pressure, possible heart attack, possible heat stroke because the ability to control body temperature is decreased.
GHB (Gamma Hydroxbutyrate) – clear liquid or white powder. Used as a date-rape drug.
Effects – Euphoria, relaxation, dizziness, loss of inhibitions, Higher doses cause of loss of memory, respiratory problems, seizures, coma, and death.
Ketamine, also known as ‘Special K’, typically used as an anesthetic for humans/animals
Effects = hallucinations, numbness, inability to move, loss of memory, and dissociation. Often used as a rape drug.
PCP, also called Angel Dust.
Effects = mild euphoria, distortion of reality, psychotic behavior. Suicide and accidental death are common as are seizures and coma. The effects last a few hours to several days.
Depressants, in general, slow the function of the CNS and have effects similar to drinking alcohol. When used in combination with alcohol, the effects are increased. An overdose may cause a person to stop breathing.
Rohypnol (roofies) – A powerful hypnotic drug which is used as a date-rape drug. It easily dissolves into drinks without a noticeable taste.
DMX (dextromethorphan) = Used in prescription cough syrup. In higher doses, the user feels “spacey”.
Heroin (smack, horse)
Short term effects = mental confusion, low BP, decrease in HR, low body temp., respiratory depression
Long term = constipation, diminished fertility, mood swings
Easy to OVERDOSE
Distorted sense of time and space
Loss of balance and coordination
Short Term Memory
Effects Central Nervous System
Respiratory problems = lung cancer
Loss of ability to add to long term memory
The answer is simple: they want to get high.
What does it mean to be “high”?
When a person is “high”, they are under the effects of a hallucinogenic drug. This may cause them to see, hear, and feel things differently, and they might even see, hear or feel things that aren’t even there at all.
Some associate positive “euphoric” feelings with the drug because of the way the drug acts on their brain
Marijuana (Cannabis Sativa)
Active Ingredient = THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)
60-70’s: .5-3% THC
High lasted 45 minutes
Noticed skewed emotional reactions
Got the “munchies”
Today: 6-20% THC
High lasts 3-6 hours
Eye-hand coordination affected
Sense of speed, distance, time
LSD (Acid) = Made from a grain fungus.
Method = Usually a small square of paper placed in the mouth.
Effect – Rise in blood pressure, chills, fever, trembling, and confusion of the senses.
Sometimes users panic when they can’t stop the trip.
Flashbacks = LSD is fat soluble and flashbacks may occur.
Addiction = the psychological desire to continue using is overwhelming.
Psilocybin (mushrooms) – Eaten.
Effects = cramps, sweating, vomiting, followed by a trip.
PCP – talked about earlier….can also be a hallucinogen.
Inhalants = gasses that are inhaled from various products including paint, glue, propane, and nitrous oxide.
Short term Effects = Similar to alcohol. Dizziness, loss of inhibitions, loss of coordination.
Long term Effects = Liver, lung, and kidneys. Tremors, coordination, speech, walking.
Killing massive numbers of brain cells is the major issue
May damage other organs
Can cause sudden death
Amphetamines (speed, bennies, uppers) = Speeds up the CNS. Medically used to reduce appetite and treat nervous disorder.
Effects = Gives a “rush”, headache, diarrhea, sweating. Also makes you mistrustful.
Overdose = convulsions, coma, death.
Methamphetamine (crystal, ice, meth) = An illegal member of the Amphetamine family. The yellowish crystals are crushed and smoked, injected, or inhaled. The effects last for hours.
Effects = euphoria, loss of appetite, increased alertness, hyperactivity. Extremely addictive!
Dangers = permanent brain damage, kidney and liver damage.
Cocaine (snow, rock) = comes from the coca plant. As a paste it can be smoked. As a white powder is can be snorted, smoked, or eaten. As a rock, it is smoked. It speeds up the CNS, especially the pleasure center and may cause a loss of knowing reality. An overdose will bring on a stroke or heart attack. Physically and psychologically dependent.
Opiates – Unripened seeds of the poppy flower. Kill pain, suppress coughs and relax => VERY ADDICTIVE
Morphine = pain killer
Codeine = cough suppressant
Methadone = used to ‘ease’ heroin addicts to avoid withdrawal
Leaves of the cannabis sativa plant.....dried, crumbled, and then smoked.
(weed, bud, chronic)
Hinsdale Central High School
What is the legal definition of a
Substances other than food that change the structure or function of the body or mind.
ALL MEDICINES ARE DRUGS, BUT NOT ALL DRUGS ARE MEDICINES
Not to be confused with MEDICINES which are used to treat or prevent disease or other conditions.
Speedball (heroin & cocaine)
Amphetamines (Rx Required):
Legal (Rx only) Methamphetamines
some are available for Rx for treatment of ADHD or obesity)
Meth, Crystal Meth, Speed
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
"What do those words mean?"
Stimulants used in prescription medicines to reduce fatigue and drowsiness. Sometimes used to suppress appetite.
Regular use can result in twitching, irregular heart beat, paranoia, and heart/blood vessel damage.
Also known as "Meth", it is a stimulant used in treating certain diseases, including Parkinson's disease, obesity, and ADHD.
Misuse can result in developing depression, paranoia, damage to the CNS, increased heart rate and blood pressure, damage to brain cells and death.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Drugs and Neurotransmitters
Drugs act on the neurotransmitters in our brain that regulate many aspects of our physical and mental/emotional health. When people abuse drugs (whether prescribed, over the counter, or used illegally) it can impact the function many of these neurotransmitters and cause health issues.
Besides their medical use, narcotics/opioids produce a general sense of well-being by reducing tension, anxiety, and aggression. These effects are helpful in a therapeutic setting but contribute to the drugs’ abuse. Narcotic/opioid use comes with a variety of unwanted effects, including drowsiness, inability to concentrate, and apathy.
the illicit drug heroin and pharmaceutical drugs like OxyContin, Vicodin, codeine, morphine, and methadone.
SUBSTANCES THAT DULL THE
, and treat
sleep related issues
These drugs are and abusing
them carries a very high risk of
Doctors often prescribe them for people who are anxious or can't sleep. Taken as prescribed by a doctor, they can be relatively safe and helpful. However, dependence and addiction are still potential risks when taking prescription depressants. These risks increase when these drugs are abused.
"What do those words mean?"
Benzodiazepines act selectively on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptors in the brain. It enhances response to the inhibitory neurotransmitter
, making the neuron negatively charged and
resistant to excitation.
Benzodiazepines are similar in pharmacological action but have different potencies, and some benzodiazepine work better in treatment of particular conditions. Benzodiazepines are
used as sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics (anxiety treatment), anticonvulsants (seizure treatment) and muscle relaxants
Barbiturates are a group of drugs in the class of drugs known as sedative-hypnotics, which generally describes their sleep-inducing and anxiety-decreasing effects. Some barbiturates may be used to relieve anxiety or tension, or as anticonvulsants to help control seizures in certain disorders or diseases, such as epilepsy. Barbiturates may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Barbiturates can be extremely dangerous because the correct dose is difficult to predict. Even a slight overdose can cause coma or death
. Barbiturates are also addictive and can cause a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome.
Rx for sleeping disorders, anxiety & tension
Benzodiazepines (Commonly referred to as "tranquilizers) -
Rx for stress, panic attacks, convulsions, sleep disorders.
Rx and OTC sleep medications
They cause hallucinations, which can be
sensations, sounds, and visual images
that seem real though they are not. They can be naturally occurring or man-made.
SUBSTANCES THAT alter a persons
Marijuana, hashish, salvia
LSD (D-lysergic acid diethylamide)
Ketamine (surgery anesthetic for humans & animals)
Bath salts (synthetic cathinones) are human-made drugs chemically related to cathinone, a stimulant found in the khat plant. Khat is a shrub grown in East Africa and southern Arabia.
Information comes from the following sources:
National Institutes on Health (NIH), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Partnership for a Drug Free America, Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services (SAMHSA)