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A brief introduction to the origin of the universe

Athena Liu

on 12 April 2013

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A brief introduction to the origin of the universe HOW DID THE UNIVERSE BEGIN? Mythological Explanations THE BIG BANG! Philosophy Theories OTHER PHYSICAL THEORIES Our whole universe was in a hot dense state,
Then nearly fourteen billion years ago expansion started. Wait...
The Earth began to cool,
The autotrophs began to drool,
Neanderthals developed tools,
We built a wall (we built the pyramids),
Math, science, history, unraveling the mysteries,
That all started with the big BANG! The Big Chill NOT The Big Bang??! Mythological Explanations
Philosophy Theories
Physical Theories
The Big Bang
Other Theories CONTENTS Chinese Traditional Myth Bible:
God create the world At the first God made the heaven and the earth.
And the earth was waste and without form;
and it was dark on the face of the deep;
and the Spirit of God was moving on the face of the waters.
And God said, Let there be light! And there was light.
And God, looking on the light, saw that it was good:
and God made a division between the light and the dark, Taoism:
Taiji Aristotle:
The Eternal Universe Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a fifth element, called aether (later known as quintessence), added to the four Classical elements. Space may be made up of indivisible building blocks, like tiny atoms.
Space and time are not continuous and flowed smoothly at very small scales. Universe is Like Liquid How to verify? Quantum Graphity: As the universe cools, it 'crystallises' into the three spatial and one time dimension that we see today.
We would expect that cracks should form, similar to the way cracks are formed when water freezes into ice. Light and other particles would bend or reflect off such defects, and therefore in theory scientists should be able to detect these effects. *From the research result of theoretical physicists at the University of Melbourne and RMIT University, 08/2012 Egypt:
Atum, the god of creation Atum was the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound , from the primordial waters .
He created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut by spitting them out of his mouth.
--the Heliopolitan creation myth The Greek:
The 12 Titans, the first gods THANKS! Presented to you by: Xiaohe Liu (11300290034)
Jingtong Wu (12300120074)
Mingyue Wang (12300120070) BIOL119005.01 | EVOLUTIION OF LIFE their weapons Observational
Evidence Problems BIG BANG THEORY Related Issues Timeline Planck Epoch 10^-43s 1s Quarks become confined within hadrons. Neutrinos cease to interact with other particles. 10^-6s Matter Domination 7000y Stable Atoms 10^4y The first star began to shine. 10^8y In physical cosmology, the Planck epoch (or Planck era) is the earliest period of time in the history of the universe, from zero to approximately 10−43 seconds (Planck time). It is believed that, due to the extraordinary small scale of the universe at the time, quantum effects of gravity dominated physical interactions. During this period approximately 13.8 billion years ago gravitation is believed to have been as strong as the other fundamental forces, and all the forces may have been unified. Inconceivably hot and dense, the state of the universe during the Planck epoch was unstable, tending to evolve, giving rise to the familiar manifestations of the fundamental forces through a process known as symmetry breaking. This has also been theorized to be the earliest moment of time that can be meaningfully described. Hydrogen and helium nuclei capture electrons to form stable atoms.
Photons are no longer able to interact strongly with atoms. Resources from: Hubble's law The expansion of space The doppler-shift-measured velocity, of various galaxies receding from the Earth, is proportional to their distance from the Earth and all other interstellar bodies
v = H(0)D
--to measure the distance of stars Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation 9 year WMAP image of background cosmic radiation (2012) The detailed, all-sky picture of the infant universe created from nine years of WMAP data. The image reveals 13.77 billion year old temperature fluctuations (shown as color differences) that correspond to the seeds that grew to become the galaxies. The signal from our galaxy was subtracted using the multi-frequency data. This image shows a temperature range of ± 200 microKelvin.

Credit: NASA / WMAP Science Team Galactic evolution and distribution Primordial gas clouds Other lines of evidence DARK ENERGY Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain observations since the 1990s that indicate that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. DARK MATTER Dark matter is a type of matter hypothesized to account for a large part of the total mass in the universe. Dark matter cannot be seen directly with telescopes; evidently it neither emits nor absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level. Instead, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter, radiation, and the large-scale structure of the universe. Inflationary Theory Flatness problem Horizon problem Different regions of the universe have not "contacted" each other because of the great distances between them, but nevertheless they have the same temperature and other physical properties. This should not be possible, given that the transfer of information (or energy, heat, etc.) can occur, at most, at the speed of light. Any small departure from the critical density grows with time, and yet the Universe today remains very close to flat.Given that a natural timescale for departure from flatness might be the Planck time, the fact that the Universe has reached neither a heat death nor a Big Crunch after billions of years requires an explanation. Cosmological inflation is the theorized extremely rapid exponential expansion of the early universe by a factor of at least 1078 in volume, driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density.The inflationary epoch comprises the first part of the electroweak epoch following the grand unification epoch. It lasted from 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds. Following the inflationary period, the universe continued to expand, but at a slower rate. ? from:
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