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Cell Cycle: Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis, Cancer, Chromosomes
Transcript of Cell Cycle: Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis, Cancer, Chromosomes
when a normal cell exceeds the checkpoints of mitosis and continues to grow
The cause is usually that the normal functions of a gene get distorted so that the cell is no longer growth controlled.
chromosomes condense and become visible
centrioles move towards opposite ends of the cell (poles)
the nuclear envelope disappears
spindle fibers begin formation and radiate toward the center of the cell
then line up in the middle of the cell
form radiate toward the center
centromeres that join the sister chromatids split
sister chromatids separate becoming individual chromosomes.
Chromatids are pulled to the poles
chromosomes (only one chromatid) uncoil
the nuclear envelope reforms
spindle fibers break down and dissolve
Phases of Mitosis
The cell cycle is a
pattern of growth and division that occurs in eukaryotic cells.
This cycle consists of three phases. The first phase represents
while the last two phases represent
Purpose: CELL GROWTH
Interphase is the longest phase in the cell cycle.
G1: cell growth and protein synthesis
S: chromosomes replicate and divide to form identical sister chromatid held by the centromere
G2: cells grow and produce proteins necessary for cell division
By the end of Interphase, after G2, the cell is large enough to begin dividing and has two full sets of DNA (chromosomes).
Purpose: make two cells out of one
each cell must have its own DNA and cytoplasm
division of the cytoplasm into two individual cells
In animal cells:
cell membrane forms a
that pinches the cell into two nearly equal parts, each part containing its own nucleus and organelles
In plant cells:
a structure known as a
forms midway between the divided nuclei, which gradually develops into a separating membrane.
The cell wall forms in the cell plate