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Cell Cycle: Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis, Cancer, Chromosomes

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Shiley Biology

on 10 February 2015

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Transcript of Cell Cycle: Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis, Cancer, Chromosomes

Cellular Division
Cell
Division
Cytokinesis
Cancer Cells
when a normal cell exceeds the checkpoints of mitosis and continues to grow
The cause is usually that the normal functions of a gene get distorted so that the cell is no longer growth controlled.
chromosomes condense and become visible
centrioles move towards opposite ends of the cell (poles)
the nuclear envelope disappears
spindle fibers begin formation and radiate toward the center of the cell
Prophase
Metaphase
chrom
osomes
then line up in the middle of the cell
spindle fibers
form radiate toward the center
Anaphase
centromeres that join the sister chromatids split

sister chromatids separate becoming individual chromosomes.

Chromatids are pulled to the poles
Telophase
chromosomes (only one chromatid) uncoil
the nuclear envelope reforms
spindle fibers break down and dissolve
Cytokinesis begins
Phases of Mitosis
The cell cycle is a
repeated
pattern of growth and division that occurs in eukaryotic cells.

This cycle consists of three phases. The first phase represents
cell growth
while the last two phases represent
cell division
.
Interphase
Purpose: CELL GROWTH
Interphase is the longest phase in the cell cycle.
three phases:
G1: cell growth and protein synthesis
S: chromosomes replicate and divide to form identical sister chromatid held by the centromere
G2: cells grow and produce proteins necessary for cell division

By the end of Interphase, after G2, the cell is large enough to begin dividing and has two full sets of DNA (chromosomes).
Centromere
Mitosis
Purpose: make two cells out of one
each cell must have its own DNA and cytoplasm
division of the cytoplasm into two individual cells

In animal cells:
cell membrane forms a
cleavage furrow
that pinches the cell into two nearly equal parts, each part containing its own nucleus and organelles

In plant cells:
a structure known as a
cell plate
forms midway between the divided nuclei, which gradually develops into a separating membrane.
The cell wall forms in the cell plate
Cytokinesis
Cell Cycle
mitosis
Full transcript