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Project 2 Prezi
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Assessment: Students are to memorize all the capitals by giving them a word bank quiz. Description In the direct/objectivist teaching method focuses around the teacher. He/she sets the goals for instruction and assures that they are met. This method uses:
memorization Examples/ Methods/Assessments.... Constructivist Teaching Methods and Assessments Description The teacher is not the center of the classroom, instead, he/she works with the students in the learning process. This method involves:
group work amongst peers
real world scenarios
motivated, independent learning Objectivism Learning Theory Debate Conclusion/ Agreement Highly skilled teachers are required with many years of experience and/or training in this style of instruction. Examples of a Constructivist Learning Environment As has been established constructivist learning is a student-based process in which learners develop, or construct, their own understanding of the subject material as they work with concepts and think about their processes. Rather than receiving their information from a single authoritative source of knowledge, which is considered the right answer, students incorporate their own outside experiences and perspectives as well as from their peers to develop their own understanding of concepts. This learner-driven theory emphasizes multiple perspectives, in which constructivism assumes that each individual student acquires and adapts this input from the external world from his or her experiences, and each student will have a slightly different understanding of that external input and information. Constructivist Teaching Methods Constructivist Teaching Assessments Constructivist Learning Practices: Methods and Assessment What Teachers Seek to do in a Constructivist Learning Environment Constructivist teachers seek to ask big questions to give students to think about it, and lead them to the resources to answer it. The value of changing one’s mind, in this case the student’ minds are an invaluable element of the learning process. When concepts are presented as wholes, students seek to make meaning of this new found information by breaking the wholes into parts that they can understand; they then construct the process and understanding rather than having it done for them. E.g. – A teacher structures a lesson in which he/she designs the unit around three wars, the Revolutionary War, The Civil War, and World War II. The teacher will then write questions on the board and ask the students what they know about each war, and then to select two of the three wars. In doing so, the students will then be asked to compare and contrast each war, which they will then construct the process rather than having it done for them. Based on what they answer, the teacher will lead to resources to help them answer those questions. Constructivist approaches can also be used within an online class setting. For example, tools such as discussion forums, wikis, and blogs can enable students to actively construct their own knowledge. One of the primary goals for teachers using the constructivist teaching method is that students learn how to learn by giving them the training to take initiative for their own learning experiences. There are certain characteristics that are present within a constructivist classroom which are as follows: Students are actively engaged in the activity provided by the teacher •The academic environment is a democratic setting •Most activities are interactive and geared toward more student-centered activities •The teacher creates an environment in which he/she facilitates a process of learning in which students are encourage to be responsible and autonomous
In the constructivist classroom, students work primarily in group centered activities in which learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. More focus is put and emphasized on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas. Some activities that are commonly used and encouraged in constructivist classrooms include the following: •Experimentation: students will often perform a experiment on an individual bases, but then will come together as a class to discuss the results. •Research Projects: Students might research a topic and can present their research and findings to their peers. •Field Trips: This sort of activity allows the students to put the concepts and ideas they have learned in class into a real-world setting. Once field trips were over with, they would be followed by class discussions. •Film: This tool provides the students visual context, which can be used to bring another sense to the learning process. •Class Discussions: This method is used in all methods of teaching as mentioned above. It is by far one of the most important distinctions in the constructivist teaching method. •Use teaching strategies that require the students to make a construct. Students must learn to apply, use, or process the information. •Ensure all students are participating in making these constructs. All students must be held accountable for their own learning. •Teaching by asking or guided discovery. •Constructivist teachers allow student responses to drive lessons, shift instructional strategies, and alter content. •They encourage student inquiry by asking thoughtful, open-ended questions and encouraging students to ask questions of each other. Constructivist Teaching Method In Action Through nonjudgmental questioning, the teacher leads the student to construct new understanding and acquire new skills. Therefore, constructivist believe that assessment should used as a tool to enhance both the student’s learning and the teacher’s understanding of the student’s current grasp of the subject material. In the constructivist theory assessment is viewed as a part of the learning process in which students play a much greater role in judging their own progress. It is essential to note that this alternative assessment is criterion-referenced so it tells the teacher what the learner can actually do within the given context. This, in turn, provides an accurate feedback on specific course objectives. Below are just some other examples constructivist teachers used to form an assessment on their students: Authentic or performance assessment usually provides a task for the learners in which they need to perform. The results of their performance is evaluated with the use of a rubric, which is a kind of a table with specially prepared criteria for students’ performance allocated to the accurate levels of proficiency. •Another form of authentic assessment is self-assessment which encourages students to be directly involved in the learning process. It underlines the feeling of being autonomous and intrinsically motivated. •Another intriguing evaluation method used by constructivist educators is the peer-assessment method which is connected and cooperative learning. Students learn how to be critical and how to draw conclusions from what others consider good or bad. This helps students become better learners and to work in groups, and it also improves skills for socializing and cooperation. •A very interesting form of assessing students’ performance is portfolio assessment. This requires a collection of different students’ works which are then gathered for a longer period of time and analyzed according to some objectives and criteria established within the lesson set by the teacher. Contructivist Teaching •Other tools that can be used to assess a student’s progress and performance lye with the use of journals. Journals may contain a set of thoughts, ideas, or reactions written freely by the students and later assessed by the teacher. The main purpose of this method is to pool the thoughts, play with words and analogies, experiment. Objectivist/Directed Teaching Constructivist Assessment in a Classroom Setting Example 2: Teacher provides a strategy to understand algebra problems while the students annotate notes.
Assessment: Students should complete a 10 question assignment for homework on the problems they have worked in class. Example 3: Teacher shows a movie about the subject they are learning.
Assessment: Students should answer all the questions in an assignment given at the end about the movie. Directed Instruction Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages •The teacher has control of the timing of the lesson. •Easily being able to explain why the content is important to students, which highlights the lesson goals. •Direct instruction is good for teaching basic skills, concepts and facts. • Student progress can easily be measured. •The direct instruction method is a widely recognized and accepted form of instruction, so less time will be needed for familiarizing students, other school staff or parents with the method. Direct instruction is used to describe a lesson where the teacher has control. In a direct instruction lesson: the teacher usually spends some time lecturing; then the teacher will guide the students through a complex problem, with the problem broken down into small steps; then the students are given the simple steps to carry out on their own; and finally the students are given one or many sample problems to accomplish on their own. Though direct instruction might be one of the most commonly and oldest teaching practices most educators use in today’s curriculum, it still contains its fair share of advantages and disadvantages when it comes to instruction and learning. Below are just some examples of advantages and disadvantages that direct instruction has when educators choose to use this method of teaching. Scenario in which Direct Instruction was Effective Disadvantages It is based on old learning theories: that we must learn simple tasks before complex ones, and that only measurable learning is worth while. •Students do not have a sense of the overall purpose of the simple steps. •Teachers can not assess what the students’ prior knowledge is, so will be unaware of why particular students can not learn. •The direct instruction method doesn’t incorporate the teacher’s personality or creativity within the lesson, as steps must be followed in a prescribed manner. •The direct instruction method requires effective oral communication skills. Without those skills, students could find the content uninteresting, when in fact; it could be the speaker's delivery style that is keeping the students from learning. Scenario in which Direct Instruction was not Effective Constructivist Classroom Advantages Disadvantages Promotes meta cognitive development by requiring the student to create their own conceptualized knowledge with emphasizes on analysis and synthesis of information.
Group cooperation helps the student’s social skills needed to collaborate in the post grade school world.
Encourages the use of real world style assessments that allow the student to have a reference for future everyday problems.
Students have a tendency to resist a new teaching model. Students might have an initial period of confusion or frustration. Group cooperation might allow a student to learn to use a “better” students or more willing students to complete the work. Essentially negating any learning of any kind. The classroom setting becomes a place where learning becomes the center piece and not teaching, where learners are encouraged to discuss with their peers, and where the information learned by students helps prepare them for a real-world setting. In conclusion, we believe the constructivist method is most effective.
Why? A student under the constructivism theory will have a much greater chance of becoming an autonomous learner by requiring the student to create their own conceptualized knowledge and emphasizing on analysis and synthesis of information. The students and the teacher work together in the learning process. Teachers should not be the main focus of the classroom. The most effective learning occurs when everyone in the classroom is involved in the process. By Samantha Ruiz, Robert Garcia, Nicholas Miles, and Jose Galvan