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Early Childhood Timeline
Transcript of Early Childhood Timeline
children with disabilities attending private schools;
highly mobile children with disabilities including migrant children;
children who are suspected of having a disability and need special education even though they are advancing from grade to grade; and
children with disabilities who are homeless or a ward of the state. Reaching Out Today, early intervention programs and services are provided to almost 200,000 eligible infants and toddlers and their families, while nearly 6 million children and youth receive special education and related services to meet their individual needs. Other accomplishments directly attributable to IDEA include educating more children in their neighborhood schools, rather than in separate schools and institutions, and contributing to improvements in the rate of high school graduation, post-secondary school enrollment, and post-school employment for youth with disabilities who have benefited from IDEA. SPE 6353 Advanced Studies in ECSE
By: Kristen Pickering IDEA has been updated about every five years since its beginnings, the latest of which is the 2004 reauthorization.
The reason for this consistent updating is to give us a chance to see how the law plays out in practice, and what we need to do to make it more clear, efficient or effective.
In 1986, for example, the infant and toddler component was added, and in 1990, transition planning became a requirement In the 25 years since the passage of Public Law 94-142, significant progress has been made toward meeting major national goals for developing and implementing effective programs and services for early intervention, special education, and related services.
Before IDEA, many children were denied access to education and opportunities to learn.
For example, in 1970, U.S. schools educated only one in five children with disabilities, and many states had laws excluding certain students, including children who were deaf, blind, emotionally disturbed, or mentally retarded. Congress enacted the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), in 1975, to support states and localities in protecting the rights of, meeting the individual needs of, and improving the results for infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities and their families. This landmark law is currently enacted as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as amended in 1997. By 1968, the Federal government had supported:
• Training for more than 30,000 special education teachers and related specialists;
• Captioned films viewed by more than 3 million persons who were deaf; and
• Education for children with disabilities in preschools and in elementary, secondary, and state-operated schools across the country.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Federal government, with the strong support and advocacy of family associations, such as The ARC, began to develop and validate practices for children with disabilities and their families. These practices, in turn, laid the foundation for implementing effective programs and services of early intervention and special education in states and localities across the country. Landmark court decisions further advanced increased educational opportunities for children with disabilities. For example, the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. Commonwealth (1971) and Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia (1972) established the responsibility of states and localities to educate children with disabilities. Thus, the right of every child with a disability to be educated is grounded in the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. IEP Development IEP means Individualized Education Program which is a written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a meeting. Each public agency is responsible for initiating and conducting meetings for the purpose of developing, reviewing, and revising the IEP of a child with a disability.
Each public agency shall ensure that:
An IEP is developed and implemented for each child with a disability served by that agency; and
An IEP is is developed and implemented for each eligible child placed in or referred to a private school or facility by the public agency
An IEP must be in effect before any special education and related services are provided to an eligible child under this part.
As soon as possible after development of IEP special education and related services are made available to the child in accordance with the child's IEP which was agreed and signed by the parent(s), regular education teacher, special education teacher, service provider, and other qualified professionals. Resources http://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/leg/idea/history.html
Referral If a child is suspected of having a disability which adversely affects educational performance and who by reason thereof, needs special education and related services, a referral made be made at any time to the local educational agency by-
the child's teacher;
other educational personnel;
the child's parent(s);
the child; or
other individuals with relevant knowledge of the child
A referral is to be made in writing through completion of the required referral form and turned into the designated personnel. Informal data collection should be completed prior to referral conference. When appropriate a child's parent(s) must be informed that a referral was made and why.
Evaluation Each public agency must conduct a full and individual evaluation before the initial provision of special education and related services to a child with a disability under this part.
A parent of a child or a public agency may initiate a request for an initial evaluation to determine if the child is a child with a disability.
Evaluation procedures for initial evaluation must be conducted within 60 calendar days of receiving parental consent for the evaluation; and
must consist of procedures-
to determine if the child is a child with a disability
to determine the educational needs of the child
Evaluation is defined as the data gathering process where procedures are used selectively with an individual student. It does not include basic tests administered or procedures used with all students in a school, grade, or class. Reevaluation Each public agency must ensure that the IEP of a child with a disability is reviewed and that a reevaluation of each child is conducted if the public agency determines that the educational or related services needs, including improved academic achievement and functional performance warrant a reevaluation, or the child's parent or teacher requests a reevaluation. A reevaluation needs to be conducted at least every three years but not more than once per year unless the parent and public agency agree otherwise. Annual Review Each public agency must ensure that the IEP team-
reviews the child's IEP periodically, but not less than annually, to determine whether the annual goals for the child are being achieved; and
Revises the IEP to address-
any lack of expected progress toward the annual goals
The results of any reevaluation conducted
Information about the child provided to, or by, the parent
The child's anticipated needs;
or other matters.