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Chapter 11: Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Transcript of Chapter 11: Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Educational Options and Instructional Strategies
Residential Schools for the Deaf
Deaf vs. Hard of Hearing
Children who do not say single words by the age of one OR children who do not say two-word phrases by the age of 2 may suffer from hearing loss
inability to communicate because thy do not understand spoken language
Struggles to communicate and speak normally
Respond inappropriately to questions
Experience difficulty articulating and expressing themselves
challenges with pronunciation or other patterns of speech
Types of Deafness
-those who are born deaf
State schools were the first schools that provided education specifically designed for deaf students. Residential schools for the deaf are schools that typically proved services for students between the ages of 4 to 20. Classes only consist of deaf children. Deaf adults often work at these schools and many students look up to these teachers as role models. Students have opportunities to be involved a wide variety of extracurricular activities (sports) and are provided with any additional support services, such as speech therapy or physical therapy if warranted. Residential schools also provide deaf children with the opportunity of socializing with other deaf children. Students who typically live 30 or miles away from the school are eligible to live on campus as a resident student. Most children go home on the weekends, holidays, and summer vacations.
Day Schools for the Deaf
Day schools for the deaf are similar to residential schools in that they only serve students with hearing loss. The teaching methods at these schools are specifically designed to meet the needs of children with hearing loss. Day schools provide students with the opportunity to socialize with other children who have hearing loss. Some disadvantages of day schools include: limited number of deaf personnel (which could result in less deaf role models for the students), and most of the staff is hearing so the styles of communication will vary.
Charter schools usually tend to use a bilingual approach or oral educational approach. Most charter schools believe in the importance of providing a visual language (a signed language, such as American Sign Language) to enhance learning. These schools are usually run by parents, teachers, and/or Deaf Community members. Charter schools are tied to a contract with the members of the charter school community and the local board of education.
Similar to private schools, but use public funding.
Accommodations in the classroom
- An inclusion setting is an educational option in which children with disabilities are included or served in the general education classroom alongside non-disabled peers. Teachers are required to make accommodations for the students as mandated by the child's Individual Education Plan or IEP. Interpreters can be made available.
- This is a different type of educational setting that is available within the public school setting. Children who are mainstreamed may spend the majority of their day in the general education classroom, but might spend some of their time in a resource setting (pull-out program). Another option that is available under this model is the self-contained classroom. This is a class that is designed specifically for students with hearing loss. Students who are assigned to self-contained classroom are mainstreamed with general education peers for certain content areas such as Physical Education, music, or social studies for example.
- Resource settings are usually pull-out programs in which the child leaves the general education classroom and is educated in another classroom by a teacher who has specific training with working with students who have hearing loss and or children who have additional disabilities.
- Itinerant teachers typically serve students who are either on a consultative service or a direct service. For example, some students with hearing loss might be so successful in the classroom, that they only need minimal support. In this situation, the itinerant teacher may make frequent visits to ensure that assistive technology devices are working properly and to make sure that the student is passing all subjects and is doing well. The itinerant teacher may also discuss the student's academic performance with the general education teacher. Sometimes, Itinerant teachers provide direct services. They provide direct services to students when they are in need of more specialized instruction or tutoring. The amount of time that the itinerant teacher works with the student will depend on the individual needs of each student.
Technology for Hearing Loss
As a regular education teacher it is extremely important that we know all of our students whether they have exceptional needs or not.
*Understand different types of hearing loss and most importantly understand the hearing needs of each student!!
Keep instructions brief and uncomplicated
Present everything in visual formats
Use multiple ways of demonstrating/explaining information
Repeat comments & questions of students and acknowledge who is speaking so the deaf or hard of hearing student can focus on the speaker
Make sure student can see both teacher and interpreter
Use many visual aids!
Have circular seating arrangements for the deaf or hard of hearing student is able to see the class and teacher
Andrews, J.F., Leigh, I.W. & Weiner, M. T. (2004). Deaf People: Evolving perspectives from psychology, education, and sociology. Boston, MA: Pearson.
"I wish that all teachers knew that deaf students are very capable. And just to hold them to the same expectations they would any child."
most people have some residual hearing.
Hard of Hearing
-can hear some, but not all. More than a person who is classified as deaf.
"I think that the regular classroom teacher, in order to educate the deaf student, really needs to know about that student, just like she would the hearing students in the classroom, and get to know the background of the student, because that plays an important role when the child comes in day after day."
Children who are hard of hearing tune out instruction from parents or adults because they simply can not hear them
Students are so used to not being able to hear conversations --> in result they do not listen when they are being instructed because they cannot differ instruction vs. other noise and communication going on
This leads to assumptions of inattention or behavioral problems and misconduct
We need to focus on the child's ABILITY and what they bring to our classroom.
3 types- behind the ear, i the ear and in ear canal
Teachers should know proper upkeep
These make sounds louder not clearer
Rear- View Captioning- displays captions during a movie on a movable panel
Captioning on most TVs are required
Text Telephones and Relay Messages
Computer Assisted Instruction and Internet
DVD programs to learn ASL
During Exams and Writing Assignments:
Give the student assistance with proofreading written work
Show importance of organization & ideas instead of mechanics
Lunk, D. (Ed.). (n.d). Teaching Deaf Students in the Inclusive Classroom: Part 1 (M. Bamford, Videographer). Retrieved April 14, 2014, from Learn NC website: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/18398
Turning up the TV, radio, games, etc. to excessive volumes in attempt to compensate for their hearing challenges
Experience echioraxis --> children who closely watch peers and mimic or imitate their body language and behaviors
Mainly experience with only completely deaf children
Hearing impaired children may appear dizzy or disorientated because the nerves in their ears are not working properly, and those same nerves also control balance
-those who acquire deafness at some time after birth.
Russo, J. (2013, August 16). Characteristics of Hearing Impairment and Deafness in Children. Retrieved April 13,2014, from LIVESTRONG Foundation website: http://www.livestrong.com/article/509643-characteristics-of-hearing-impairment-and-deafness-in-children/
-deafness that occurs at birth or early in life before speech and language develop.
-deafness that occurs after the delopment of speech and language.
-most common, school testing.
-designed to establish the individual's threshold of hearing at a variety of different frequencies.
-test's a person's detection and understanding of speech, rather than using pure tones to detect hearing loss.
Specialized Tests for Young Children
-in order to follow through with the tests above, children need to be able to follow instructions. There are different tests that don't need children to follow instructions
-A manual language used by people who are deaf to communicate; a true language with its own grammar.
A method that involves teaching children to use visual information from a number of sources to understand what is being said to them; more than just lipreading, which is only visual clues arising from the movement of the mouth in speaking.
-a method to aid speechreading in people with hearing impairments; the speaker uses hand shapes to represent sounds.
Communication Approaches Cont.
-the representation of letters of the English alphabet by finger positions, is also used occasionally to spell out certain words.
Text Telephones (TTYs
for the deaf))-
a device connected to a telephone by a special adapter; allows communication over the telephone between people who are hearing impaired and those with hearing.
-similar to signed English, it maintains the same word order as spoken English.
Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2012). Exceptional Learners:
An Introduction to Special Education
U.S. Food and Drug Administation. (2009, October 20). Hearing Aids. Retrieved
April 14, 2014, from U.S. Food and Drug Admidistation website:
"In a Family (signing Time)." YouTube. YouTube, 05 July 2012. Web. 30 Apr. 2014. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOq3GpQyUWYda>
Reduce Background noise as much as possible!
close doors, modify chairs and desk