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TOK Presentation

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Celine Niemitz-Rossant

on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of TOK Presentation

Real Life Situation: Caster Semenya
To what extent can intuition & reason be used to validate our judgements?
Knowledge Question
Secondary Real Life Situation
Table of Contents
TOK Presentation
Validating Judgement in the Natural Sciences, Human Sciences and Ethics
Natural Sciences
Human Sciences
Intuition
: immediate knowledge evident without any prior proof
Reason
: the capacity to think beyond the immediate experiences of our senses
Validation
: confirmation of the accuracy and legitimacy of something
Judgement
: the act of forming an opinion or evaluation
Ethics
Real Life Situation
AOK: Natural Sciences
AOK: Human Sciences
Secondary Real Life Situation
AOK: Ethics
Conclusion
Conclusion
What is the scope?
Relation to KQ: dealing with morality in order to validate judgements
Relevance to RLS 1: moral decisions from Semenya's perspective & from public's perspective
RLS 2: moral decisions from Police Officer's perspective
Intuition: basis
Reason: complex principles
Meta-ethics: Relativism vs Absolutism
Normative ethics and it's critical perspectives
moral agent: virtue ethics
features of the choice: deontology
people affected: utilitarianism
social context: ethics of care
Reflection on KQ:
intuition: basis, personal knowledge
reason: convincing, justifying with shared knowledge
Scientific Limitations
Classification
Confirmation bias
Stereotypes
Subjectivity of Perspective
Shared vs Personal Knowledge
Relevant Aspects & Knowledge Conflicts
Sources
World famous runner, won a world championship in 2009
Gained attention because of her 'masculine' attributes, her female identity was not being validated
Underwent sex testing, which showed that she is intersex
Studies human behavior (judgement) by forming theories
Knowledge is collected through studies and shows correlations
Theories can be formed using reason and intuition
Relevant to Caster Semenya because of social constructs of gender based on sex
no harm intended
not following rules
other people positively & negatively affected
challenges social context
Application to RLS 1
Application to RLS 2
good intentions, not necessarily good character
following job duties, but not "human" obligations
people affected both positively and negatively
social context based on bias
Moral or not?Depends on perspective!
Books
Dombrowski, Eileen, Lena Rotenberg, and Mimi Bick.
IB Theory of Knowledge: for the IB Diploma.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. Print.
IB Theory Of Knowledge Syllabus
Online Material
17, September. "The Case of Caster Semenya."
Los Angeles Times.
Los Angeles Times, 17 Sept. 2009. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.
"Expert: Gender Testing 'imperfect' for Female Athletes - CNN.com."
CNN.
Cable News Network, 12 Aug. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2015.
Biological Theories of Gender by Saul McLeod Twitter Icon Published 2014." Simply Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web.
Reflection on KQ
Reason: shared groundwork for behavioural studies
Intuition: instinctive basis for judgement
They are both ineffective in validating judgement in the Human Sciences, as it
To what extent can intuition & reason be used to validate our judgements?
In Natural Sciences: intuition & reason combined may be effective in validating scientific theories because of common natural patterns.
In Human Sciences: intuition and reason can never validate a judgement but can show correlations in your favour
In Ethics: intuition & reason combined may be effective in validating scientific theories because of common natural patterns
Approaching The Human Sciences
Finds broad regularities or common trends (correlations)
Partially linked to History, the
Natural Sciences
Reason
(shared knowledge)
Inductive
: observations → generalizations
Deductive
: broad statements → application based on accepted generalizations
Intuition
(personal knowledge)
Other ways of knowing such as sense perception and language

Branch of science that deals with physical world.
Shared knowledge system.
Intuition and reasoning is used in the Scientific Method.
Inductive reason: forming generalized statements.
Scientists gain knowledge by testing theories, hypotheses & laws.
Areas of Knowledge
How do we know things?
Ways of knowing help construct knowledge in AOKs.
Approaching the Natural Sciences
Intuition
:
used to create hypotheses in science.

The link between Intuition & Reasoning
Operating System Theory
Humans operate in two systems: System 1 & System 2
System 1 (Intuition): Quick, Intellectual, Subconscious
System 2 (Reason): Slower, more analytical, conscious
Reason:

used to evaluate hypotheses & knowledge.

Application to RLS
Relevant to Caster Semenya because she was forced into sex testing.
Important AOKs/WOKs Within Natural Science
Math:
formulas, equations, statistics.
Language
:
elimination of ambiguity
Natural Sciences in Our Real Life Situation
Natural sciences gives a view of oneself according to universal laws.
Sex: male/female binary based on biological differences.
Intuition: basis of the theory that Semenya was not female.
Semenya underwent sex testing: Intersex
Inductive Reasoning: Evidence lead to Conclusion
The human sciences study gender, not sex
Through pre-existing socially accepted generalizations, people judged Semenya's gender identity (deductive reasoning)
The sex testing will never determine her gender, only show a correlation between gender and sex
Intuition and reason have not been effectively
Shared vs. personal knowledge: gender identity
Stereotyping: capabilities based on gender
Intuition & Reason Best Combined
Reflection on Knowledge Question
To what extent can intuition & reason be used to validate our judgements?
PRO'S
CON'S
Intuition:
Reason:

Fast grasp of a situation
Simplifies complexity
Bases decisions off of previous experiences
Best fit for emotional decisions.
Jumping into error
No guarantee of accurate conclusion
Confirmation Bias
used to validate the judgement made by the public
Conclusions supported by evidence
Accurate results
Uncertainty
Inductive reasoning = Generalizations
only deals with
correlations and
patterns
John lives in Brooklyn, NY
Work: Front Office Manager- Hilton Hotel
Judgement made on race & class (through attire)
The combination of intuition and reason is appropriate in the natural sciences: Scientific Method
Full transcript