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Transcript of Hearing
Thursday, March 6th, 2014
Liam Poetzinger, Emma DuMez, Kaarin Quaerna, Alex Morland
Internal Ear Continued...
Physiology of Hearing
The Anatomy of the Ear
Membranous Labyrinth - collection of tubes and chambers; holds the receptors that provide the sense of hearing
Cochlea - part of Bony Labyrinth that contains the Cochlear Duct which houses the receptors responsible for hearing
1. Sound waves enter the Auditory Canal and go towards the Tympanic Membrane
2.Tympanic Membrane provides surface for sound collection and vibrates to move Auditory Ossicles
3. Stapes vibration applies pressure to Perilymph
4. Pressure waves distort Basilar Membrane on the way to the Round Window
Tympanic membrane (eardrum) - thin sheet that seperates Inner Ear from Middle Ear
The Ear is divided into three regions
Auricle (pinna) - surrounds and protects the entrance
to the Auditory Canal
Auditory Canal (External Acoustic Meatus) - hole in the
Temporal bone that leads to the Inner Ear
Ceruminous Glands - secrete wax to protect ear from
entry of foreign objects; dampens soundwaves to stop
eardrum from bursting
Eustachian (auditory) tube - equalizes pressure on either side of eardrum
Auditory Ossicles- bones that conduct vibrations through the Middle Ear
- Malleus (hammer)
- Incus (anvil)
- Stapes (stirrup)
Oval window - small openeing covered by a membrane that gets hit by the stapes which
makes pressure waves in the Inner Ear
Bony labyrinth - protects the Membranous Labyrinth
Endolymph - fluid filling the Membranous Labyrinth that is contained in Cochlear Duct
Perilymph - fluid between Bony and
Membranous Labyrinths in areas called the
Scala Vestibule and Scala Tympani
Hair Cells - receptors of the Inner Ear that
Round Window - opening in the bone of the Cochlea exposing the membrane to air
Basilar Membrane - sits below Cochlear Duct to seperate it from the Scala Tympani
Tectorial Membrane - attached to Inner wall of Cochlear Duct
Physiology of Hearing Continued...
5. Vibration of Basilar Membrane
causes vibration of Hair Cells
- as volume of sound increases
numberof active Hair Cells increases
along with intensity
- number of cells responding to a
stimulus provides information about
intensity of sound
6. Information aobut the region and
intesity of sound is relayed to the
Central Nervous System
Otitis Media - Infection of the Middle Ear
- Occurs because organisms can travel to the Middle Ear through the Auditory Canal
- The Auditory Canal becomes swollen and fluid builds up behind the eardrum
Ostosclerosis - Hereditary disorder where ossification of the Labyrinth of the Inner Ear leads to eventual deafness
- bone growth disrupts ability of sound to travle from Middle Ear to Inner Ear
Sensorineural Deafness - Deafness that results from the damage to the Inner Ear
Sensitive cilia become damaged due to loud noises.
Both ears receive information that is sent to your brain.
Since each ear is on a different side of your head, they receive different information.
These signals help determine where the noise is coming from because signals reach the closer ear faster than the other.
Hz is equal to one cycle wave per second.
Audible range of frequencies is usually said to be between 20 Hz and 20 kHz (20,000 Hz).
which is also affected by a gradual decline with age.