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layers, tectonic plates, continental drift

sara melancen

on 17 October 2018

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Transcript of Earth

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
3th planet from the SUN
Earth: The water planet
Earth is divided into many layers.
Forms under intense heat & pressure

Alfred Wegener
German meteorologist & geophysicist who developed the first theory if continental drift.
Continental Drift
Alfred Wegener

Plate Tectonics
The crust is broken into 7 major parts called plates.

Where the plates touch are called boundaries.
What are 3 objects seen by look at this picture of Earth?
Thinnest layer of the Earth.
Divided in tectonic plates
He used 3 pieces of scientific evidence to develop his theroy on the early 1900's.
Oceanic Crust
Continental Crust
Dense rock
Thin layer
Iron and magnesium
7-10 km
Thick layer
25 - 70 km
Evidence of Pangea
4-7 mi
15-65 mi
-88 to 58 C
-128 to 56 F
Mostly made up of magma
Composed of Liquid nickel and iron
Composed of solid iron and nickel.
Inner Core
Formed when sediments accumulates and compacts and cements together.
1.Continents fit like puzzle pieces
2.Same fossils
3.Similar landforms on each continet
Convention Currents in the Mantel!
Convergent Boundaries
Divergent Boundaries
Transform Boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
Divergent Boundaries
Transform Boundaries
The dense crust slide under lighter crust.
The crust slide past each other.
The crust pulls away from each other.
The Rock Cycle
Convection Currents
What are convection currents?
Where in the mantel are convection currents located?
How do convection currents move the crust?
Mapping Activity
What forms due to convection currents?
Ridge: Underwater hill range, new crust
Rise : Underwater rise in the floor
Created by Divergent movement
Trench: underwater ditch
Created by convergent movement
Fracture: A separation of crust.
Created by transform movement
Sound Navigation And Ranging
Invented by two physicists Robert William Boyle and A B Wood
Sound waves are projected. Once the waves hit an object it sends a wave back (called a ping).
This is how the ocean floor was mapped.
Ocean Landforms
Sea Floor Mapping
Work in partners to explore and discover the ocean floor.
Read and Follow the directions on the handout!!!!
Mountains: Continental plates collide
Fault: plates that slide long past each other.
Movement in opposite directions.
New rock
Made up of continental crust(land) and oceanic crust(under the ocean.
Continental crust is mostly granite
Oceanic crust mostly basalt
Similar to skin of apple
About 5-50km thick (3-30 miles)
The mantel is the thickest layer of Earth.
Has convection current which cause the tectonics plates to move
Make up about 83% of the Earth's volume
Avg. temperature is about 3000 C
2900 km / 1800 mi
Outer Core
1800 km/ 1400 miles
4000 - 5000 C
This layer is responsible for Earth's magnetism.
2nd largest (thickest) layer
Temp between 5000-6000 C
The most dense layer ( most mass and volume)
3,000,000 times the pressure at sea level
Solid metal ball
Elements Found on Earth:
Earth's Atmosphere:
Nitrogen: 78%
Oxygen: 21%
Other: 1%
Earth's Crust:
Oxygen: 47%
Silicon: 28%
Aluminum: 8%
Iron: 5%
Other: 12%
Earth's Oceans:
Oxygen: 86%
Hydrogen: 11%
Chlorine: 2%
Sodium: 1%
Other: <1%
What is the Continental Drift Theory?
Theory that states that parts of the Earth's crust drift atop a liquid core.( convention currents in the mantel)
What is Pangaea?
Gigantic "super continent" that existed 200 million years ago.
Means - " All Earth"
-Formed when lave or magma cools & hardens
- Found near volcanoes & fissures
EX: Basalt, obsidian
EX: Sandstone, limestone
May have ribbon like features in the rock
May have crystals
EX: Gneiss, marble
Forms mountains
In the ocean, forms sea-floor spreading
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
-Causes earthquakes
-San Andreas Fault
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