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The Gatling Gun
Transcript of The Gatling Gun
The Future of the Gatling Gun
The Gatling Gun
The Gatling gun came to be in 1861, the same year that the American Civil War began
The Gatling gun Company was founded the very next year
The gun was originally made so that one man could do the work of many so that armies could be made smaller and fewer lives would be lost
The first 6 of the weapon made were destroyed in a factory fire
13 more were made and 12 were sold to General Benjamin F. Butler and 1 by Admiral David Dixon Porter
The patent for the Gatling gun was sold to Colt in 1870 and the Gatling gun Company was fully absorbed by Colt in 1897
The design was ripped off by the French when they made the Mitrailleuse Gatling modele APX 1895
The hand crank version of the Gatling gun was declared obsolete in 1911
In 1893 Richard Gatling introduced the idea of a gun powered by electricity but the concept was never put into action until after WW2 in the M61 Vulcan
Even though it was made during the American Civil War it saw little military service during the war
After the Gatling Gun
After The Gatling gun was declared obsolete in 1911 the design of multiple barrels rotating around a central shaft wasn't used at all until after WW2. However, mounted machine guns were still a point of innovation. Closely following the Gatling gun was the Maxim gun, named after it's creator, Hiram Maxim. After Firing a rifle, Maxim noticed, firstly that there was heavy recoil, which subsequently made his shoulder sore, but secondly he noticed how arduous it was to reload a bullet into the chamber with the lever on the rifle itself. This led to the creation of the Maxim gun, the first truly automatic machine gun which used the force of the recoil to both eject the spent cartridge and reload a new one. Many weapons copying this design soon followed such as the Vickers gun and the Hotchkiss machine gun.
The Gatling gun's design was, as aforementioned, revived after WW2 and in the M61 Vulcan. This weapon is fired by electricity and either driven with hydraulics or pneumatics to reach firing rates of 6,000 to 6,600 rounds per minute depending on whether it's the M61A1 or the M61A2. The weapon and it's variants have been mainly used in fixed wing aircraft of the U.S. military.
Before the Gatling Gun
The Gatling Gun
Richard Jordan Gatling
Richard J. Gatling was born in Hertford County, North Carolina in 1818. At age 21 he invented a screw propeller for boats without knowledge of one being patented earlier by John Ericsson. He worked as a clerk, teacher, and merchant before moving to St. Louis Missouri at age 36.
He then got a job in a dry goods store and invented both a seed drill and rice sowing machine.
After an attack of small pox he went into the field of medicine and received an MD from the Ohio Medical College in 1850.
He never utilized his MD and instead became an inventor
When the Civil war broke out he focused on the perfection of firearms and invented the Gatling gun the same year. In October 25, 1854 he married Jemima Sanders who was the daughter of a wealthy Indianapolis physician and who was 19 years younger than Gatling himself.
In his later years he invented things that improved bicycles, toilets, pneumatic power, steam cleaning for raw wool, and many others. His wealth also fluctuated do to many bad investments. In his final years he moved back to St. Louis. He died at the age of 84 while visiting his daughter in New York.
The basic design is 6-10 barrels rotating around a central shaft, held in place by discs attached to the central shaft with holes for the barrels
Each barrel has its own firing mechanism
The barrels are rotated and fired with a hand crank
The cartridges were originally steel cylinders filled with black powder and a percussion cap but were later converted to brass but the brass cartridges were not adopted immediately
Wadding soaked with water were sometimes stuffed in between the barrels for cooling
The bullets were gravity fed through a magazine on the top of the gun
The total weight of the gun was 27.2 kilograms, the total length was 107.9 centimeters, and the barrel length was 67.3 centimeters
American Civil War (1861-1865)
Boshin War (1868-1869)
North-West Rebellion (1885)
The Assault on San-Juan Hill during the Spanish-American War (July 1st 1891)
Anglo-Zulu War (1879)
Donghak Peasant Revolts (1894-1895)
Philippine-American War (1899-1902)
War of the Pacific(non-WW2) (1879-1883)
Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901)
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
In service from 1861-1911 overall
Used by United States, Korean Empire, British Empire, Japanese Empire, Peru, Russian Empire, & Canada
"Agar gun." Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Modification Date: Jan 19, 2014. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Access Date: Fri, Mar 28, 2014.
"Gatling gun." Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Modification Date: March 25,2014. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Access Date: Thurs, Mar 6,2014.
"M61 Vulcan." Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Modification Date: March 25, 2014. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Access Date: Fri, Mar 28, 2014.
"Machine gun." Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Modification Date: March 14, 2014. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Access Date: Thurs, Mar 27, 2014.
"Category: Lists of wars by date." Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Modification Date: March 15, 2013. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Access Date: Fri, Mar 28, 2014
"Richard Jordan Gatling." Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Modification date: March 26,2014. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Access Date: Mon, Mar 10,2014.
Richard Jordan Gatling's design was not exactly the first of it's kind. There were 4 guns that came before the the Gatling gun. The first of these was Da Vinci's machine gun prototype which consisted of a varying number of barrels laid side by side and fired in sequence. In the end this just turned out to be a massive volley gun.
The next item on the agenda is the Puckle gun. This weapon was the predecessor to revolving cannons. It's drum like revolver magazine held 9 rounds and the gun itself was crank operated. The inventor, James Puckle, who was a lawyer out of London, intended that it used regular round bullets for Christian victims and square bullets for Muslim victims because the square bullets supposedly made it hurt more to get hit. It only ended up messing up the accuracy beyond belief.
Later in 1777 Joseph Belton invented a repeating flintlock that could automatically fire 20 shots in 5 seconds. He wished to give the Continental Congress this weapon which he called the "new improved gun" and the Congress gave him 100 flintlock muskets to experiment on. They later dismissed it due to Belton's price being far to high for their liking.
The last item on this list was, like the Gatling gun, created at the beginning of the American Civil War, hand crank operated, fired and reloaded automatically, and gravity fed through a magazine on the top of the gun. The only difference in design was that it had one barrel and that it strongly resembled a coffee mill. The Agar Gun, sometimes also called the coffee mill gun due to the nature of its design was, as mentioned before, created at the start of the American Civil War alongside the Gatling gun. The weapon was demonstrated before President Abraham Lincoln and he was so thrilled with it he immediately purchased 10 for $1500 per gun.
The Mitrailleuse Gatling modele APX 1895
Richard Jordan Gatling
The Puckle Gun
An M61 Vulcan
A Vickers gun & it's crew
The Agar gun
Thank You For Letting Me Waste Your Time. I Hope You Enjoyed It.