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NO PLAGIARISM! Cite your sources.

Erika Flores

on 26 February 2014

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Transcript of FALLACIES

Fallacy of relevance - Ad Populum
Why me? How about them?
Fallacy of Ambiguity - Division
Fallacy of Defective Induction (Argumentum non causa pro causa)
Fallacy of Relevance
Argumentum ad Populum
Bandwagon Fallacy
Reproductive Health Bill (HB 5043)
RH bill has four policy pillars
responsible parenthood
informed choice
birth spacing
respect for life

Fallacy of Relevance - Argumentum Ad Baculum
"If you persist in this line of reasoning I will disinherit you, throw you out of the house, stop your schooling and not talk to you ever again. You are putting me in a bad light with my brothers and sisters by suggesting that your Uncle Fred be murdered."
Fallacy of Relevance - Argumentum Ad Populum
Can you imagine what will happen if we follow as you suggested: remove the life support system and let your uncle Fred die? Son, we are Catholics - we value human life more than any material things in the world. Are you suggesting that we abandon this time honored traditional value and murder your Uncle Fred?
Tears of a Crocodile?
Fallacy of relevance – Argumentum ad Populum (emotions)
Clash of the Titans: Defensor vs. Enrile
“Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago threw everything but the kitchen sink against her colleague, Senator Juan Ponce Enrile, on Wednesday, calling him a liar, plunderer, human rights violator, tax evader, smuggler, illegal logger, and womanizer.”

“The man is an incorrigible liar and criminal, as brought out by the litany of his crimes against the Filipino people.”
The Peso Illusion
The Cebu Pacific flyers about their “Php 1” promos have lured hundreds of Filipinos into traveling for only a peso. But little did they know, service charges, airport taxes, and other billings are not emphasized in the said advertisement. Thus they end up losing more money than they should have for their pocket money.
Fallacy of relevance- Red Herring
Cybercrime Law = Martial Law
Martial Law = No Freedom of Expression

People opposed to it have twisted facts about the objectives of the bill.
From the stands by Domini M. Torrevillas
Facts, fallacies and counterfacts on RH Bill
The bill imposes population control.
Family planning leads to “demographic winter” (a future scenario where there are only old people and no children).
The bill promotes DEATH through abortion, or through the contraceptive mentality that leads to abortion.
There is no overpopulation problem; the “carrying capacity” of the country is not compromised; it is all a problem of malgovernance.
Below are the fallacies promoted about the bill, and the counterfacts, as taken from a publication of Likhaan, a women’s NGO, which cites studies and figures from the World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, Department of Health, and scientists and demographers.
COUNTERFACT: Economic experts say that while bad governance, high wealth and income inequality and weak economic growth are the main causes of poverty, rapid population growth and high fertility rates do exacerbate poverty and make it harder for the government to address it.

At the family level, the “carrying capacity” of women and couples have long been compromised, resulting in their physical, psychological and economic harm. Eleven Filipinas die daily from pregnancy and childbirth, while 1100 encounter life-threatening maternal complications. For every woman who dies, her orphaned children have three to 10 times the risk of dying during the first 28 days of life. Almost half of all pregnancies are unplanned or unintended, and one of six are ended in unsafe abortion — about 473,00 a year.
COUNTERFACT: The bill, in fact, is founded on informed choice. While it promotes an “ideal family size of 2,” there is no compulsion or punishment for those who have more. Women who want to be pregnant will be assisted to deliver safely; women and couples who want to regulate the number of their children and those having difficulty conceiving will also be assisted accordingly.
COUNTERFACT: The claim of having 0 children in the future is false. The prediction of replacement fertility or 2 children per couple by the year 2040 in the Philippines mean that there will be many children by then. This cock-eyed concern for the plight of children in the future betrays gross insensitivity to the plight of neglected children today.
Counterfact: The bill explicitly maintains the current law that criminalizes abortion (sec. 3m), forbids it and warns young people about its dangers (Sec. 12d). However, it adopts a humane approach to women suffering complications of induced abortion by offering post-abortion care (secs. 3m, 4g4, and 12d). The bill also seeks to prevent abortion (sec. 4g4) through family planning.

Experiences in other countries, e.g. Russia, Korea, Turkey and Bangladesh, show that eliminating the “root cause” of abortion — unwanted pregnancy — actually reduces the incidence of abortion.
Contraceptives are abortifacients, especially pills and Intrauterine Device (IUD).
COUNTERFACT: Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy before it starts. Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus.
Contraceptives are drugs or devices that are postulated to work in three ways: preventing the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation), preventing the union of egg and sperm (fertilization), and preventing a fertilized egg from attaching to the wall (implantation). Pills are known to work primarily by preventing ovulation although it has the potential to also prevent fertilization and implantation. IUDs are known to work primarily by preventing fertilization, although it also has the potential for preventing implantation and ovulation. Once a woman is pregnant, contraceptives cannot terminate the pregnancy.
“His house is about half the size of most houses in the neighborhood, therefore, his doors must all be about 3 1/2 feet high.”
The size of a house does not necessarily entail the size of its parts or pieces of furniture. The line is a fallacy because it tends to associate the size of the whole house to its certain parts, specifically the door.

This is a fallacy because Aling Gina, the mother of the child, puts the blame of the headache and stomach ache experienced by her son on the consumption of crinkles brought from the other bakery. The ingestion of the said bread may not really be the cause of the problem and it may be just a coincidence that the ingestion took place before experiencing the said pains.

Filipinos, especially housewives, love chatting with neighbors and sharing experiences with them. It is natural in a community of households to know each other or at least know where one’s house is located in the block.

Overheard at La Favorita Bakeshop last February 3, 2014 (Laong Nasa St., Gagalangin, Tondo, Manila)
Aling Gina (to her neighbor): “Mars, bumili ‘yung anak ko ng crinkles sa kabilang kanto kahapon, ayun pag-uwi ng bahay masakit ulo at tiyan. Eh yun lang naman huli niyang ginawa. Siguro may halong gamot ‘yung tinda nila kaya nga ‘di na uli ako bibili dun.
McDonald’s is one of the well- renowned fast food chains in the globe. It offers a variety of foods ranging from main course meals to desserts.
“Over 99 billion served.”
“Billions and billions served.”
“Gee, Mom and Dad, how can you tell me not to do drugs when you both smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol?”
Fallacy of Relevance
Argumentum ad Hominem (Circumstancial )
source: http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/rgass/fallacy3211.htm
Source: http://www.logicallyfallacious.com/index.php/logical-fallacies/88-fallacy-of-division
Meat takes almost six hours to be digested in the stomach. It is reported by the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund that ingestion of too much meat may cause colon cancer. Researches suggest that heterocyclicamine, a chemical produced when meat is cooked at high temperature, causes cancer. Processed meats are made by smoking, curing, salting, and or adding preservatives such as nitrates. The body converts nitrates into nitrosamines, which are known to increase the risk of colon cancer (Mann, 2011).
“Feeding kids meat is child abuse.”
Fallacy of Defective Induction
Converse Accident/ Hasty Generalization
“I heard that the Catholic Church was involved in a sex scandal cover-up. 
Therefore, my 102 year-old Catholic neighbor, who frequently attends Church, is guilty as well!”
Fallacy of Ambiguity- Division
“Terrorist attacks committed by Muslims are in the name of Islam, therefore all Muslims are terrorists.”
Fallacy of Ambiguity- Composition
“Philippines has killed innocent people therefore all Filipinos are murderers.”
The statement is a fallacy because what is true of the Church body is said to be true of the speaker’s neighbor, who is a member of the Church. There may be a sex scandal cover up that is linked with the Catholic church but it does not necessarily mean that all its followers are involved with it.
The statements are fallacious because not all Muslims and Israelis are ‘terrorists’ and ‘murderers’. It is true that terrorist attacks were committed by some Muslims and that some civilians were killed by some Israelis but it does not necessarily mean that all Muslims and Israelis do the same thing.
The slogan of the campaign is fallacious because it tends to stereotype meat. Although the ingestion of too much meat has drawbacks on health, it still has positive effects. In fact, meat supplies the body with the protein it needs. Moreover, not all kinds of meat harm the body. It is believed that beef and chicken are better to eat thank pork in terms of nutritional value. In addition, fish meat does not take long to be digested and even offers a lot of health benefits.
The line is considered a fallacy because it attacks the circumstance where the parents is in. The child tends to justify his deeds by comparing himself to his parents. He tends to prove himself right by saying that others, specifically his own parents, are also doing the same things or are also engaged in vices.
It is considered a bandwagon fallacy for it tries to encourage people to dine at McDonald’s by saying that several people patronize them. Since billions go to the said fast food chain, the one who reads the advertisement should also eat there for it is “in” or “hip” and it is “tried and tested” by many people already.
Fallacy of Defective Induction -Hasty Generalization
Fallacy of Relevance - Straw Man Fallacy
Fallacy of Relevance - Red Herring
Fallacy of Relevance - Red Herring
Fallacy of Relevance - Red Herring
“I am against same-sex marriage because majority of the population is against it.”
Fallacy of Relevance - Argumentum Ad Populum (Bandwagon Fallacy)

“The basic idea is that a claim is accepted as being true simply because most people are favorably inclined towards the claim.”
PERSON A: “Moral relativism causes same-sex marriage!”
PERSON B: “But earlier, you said same-sex marriage causes moral relativism, not the other way around.”
PERSON A: “No, what I meant was same-sex marriage reinforces moral relativism. I admit that is was poorly constructed because I was in a hurry.”
Fallacy of Relevance - Straw man
It is the case when Person A makes a claim, Person B refutes it, and Person A moves on to a new or revised claim, generally without acknowledging or responding to Person B’s refutation. Hence, the goalpost of the claim has been shifted or moved in order to keep the claim alive.”
Fallacy of relevance – Argumentum ad hominem (abusive)
Pointing to Enrile, Miriam said his mind is “sick, sick, sick.”
Why is it considered a fallacy?
In her privilege speech, Miriam Defensor had called Enrile degrading names. She attacked Enrile by claiming that he is a liar, plunderer, human rights violator, tax evader, smuggler, illegal logger, and a womanizer. These may or may not be true but Enrile’s character is not the issue here. Why did she have a privilege speech in the first place? It is because of the pork barrel scandal. Enrile and Defensor are not really on friendly terms as seen in their numerous arguments. She may have been biased and spouted these insults in spite and use them to further implicate Enrile in the scandal.
Source: http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/nation/12/04/13/miriam-enrile-plunderer-criminal-womanizer
Martial law was a dark time in the Philippine’s history. By mentioning this time of era, it evokes memories of the past and related sentiments such as sorrow and hardships. Filipinos had struggled during that time And by comparing the recent cybercime law to the Martial law, people will definitely oppose to it since it will apparently hinder freedom of expression, a human basic right. Clyde Letigio is somewhat urging the people to reject the law by appealing to their emotions brought by Martial law and the impending violation of rights.
Estrada (right) asked Guingona, the chair of the Senate Blue Ribbon Committee, why they did not bother to question Tuason (left) on her supposed dealings with other senators.
Senator Jinggoy Estrada claimed on Tuesday that potential state witness Ruby Tuason also visited other senators to ask for projects to be funded by pork barrel funds.
"I am really surprised why she only mentioned me and Atty. Gigi Reyes in her affidavit when she has a lot of senator-friends na pinupuntahan din niya, na hinihingian din niya ng mga proyekto para sa PDAF,"
Why is it considered a fallacy?
Senator Jinggoy Estrada is one the people who are allegedly involved in the Pork Barrel Scandal. Recently, a new witness had come forward and offered her testimony. In Ruby Tuason’s affidavit, Estrada along with Reyes were the only ones mentioned so the probe has focused their investigations on Estrada. In reply to this, “Estrada asked Guingona, the chair of the Senate Blue Ribbon Committee, why they did not bother to question Tuason on her supposed dealings with other senators.” He shifts the attention away from himself to the other senators, implying that there are many more involved in this scam and the committee should investigate them.
"Hindi pa huli. Nadadagdagan lang ang kasalanan niyo. Kung ako ang instrumento para mapabago ang isang tao, ipaglalaban ko ito ng kamatayan,”

"Kuya Vhong, I will still pray for you, I will still pray for you na sana ay gumaling ka at sana 'yung family mo ay maiintindihan din ako,"
Why is it considered a fallacy?
Deniece Cornejo, the allegedly rape victim, had a TV interview in of the biggest channels in Philippine national TV. In the recent scandal, people or to be specific netizens were skeptical about her story. In order to appeal to people’s sympathies, she cried as she told the audience that her story is true and it’s not invented. Some people can be convinced by a crying woman. She replied to the netizens that their reactions might be hurtful but she would not judge them. (guilt-tripping) Also, to further put herself into the good graces of the people, she even prayed for the well-being of her supposedly rapist. As of now, the real happenings are yet to be uncovered but one thing is for certain, Deniece Cornejo is a victim of backlash and she needs to be convincing in order to sell her story.
"Sabi nga po nila, reaction reflects kung anong klaseng tao kayo. Hindi ko kayo huhusgahan dahil hindi ako nanghuhusga ng tao. Ngayon nagpapakasaya kayo sinasaktan niyo ang pamilya ko, mga kapatid ko, mga taong gusto kong ipagtanggol, mga proyekto ko, mga kumpanya na tinulungan ko, huwag kayong mag-alala po-protektahan ko kaya hanggang kaya ko,"
PERSON A: “It is not true that homosexuals were not allowed to run for public office”
PERSON B: “Ladlad was barred by Comelec”
PERSON A: “The Comelec didn’t just bar Ladlad because of homosexuality because that is oversimplifying the position. Just look at gay pride marches. It is embarrassing. But I’m not saying that just because homosexuals behave that way, they can be discriminated against. I don’t understand why people assume that just because I think homosexuality is disordered that I automatically want to bully homosexuals. That’s pretty immature."
”A Red Herring is a fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to “win” an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic”
“Gays are not oppressed because that’s not what we see in the media”
”The Hasty Generalization fallacy is committed when a person uncritically assumes that all members or cases of a certain class or type are like those that receive the most attention or coverage in the media.”
Your father uses threat, intimidation and strong-arm tactics to reject your argument. Surely disinheriting you and stop your schooling is not the best way to demonstrate that your argument is weak
Fallacy of Induction- Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam
"Son there is always hope. You are big enough and intelligent enough to know that nobody has succeeded in disproving the existence of miracles, so therefore miracles exist. You should not deny your Uncle Fred his miracle of life."
Because nobody has disproved the existence of miracles, it does not mean that there are. If they want to prove that there are miracles, the burden of proof is in their court not on yours.
Acuna (2000), Advance Techniques For Critical Thinking, Philosophical Analysis (6th ed), 229-234.
"Nobody ever succeeded in disproving the existence of God; therefore, God exists."
Fallacy of Defective Induction- Argumentum Ad Vericundiam
If we removed the life support system, do you think the Catholic Church will allow such a cruel decision? Surely not! The Church believes in miracles. The Church will tell you that a medical breakthrough can happen anytime that will cure your uncle. Let us continue hoping and have faith in our Church.
Not all appeal to authority is fallacious. It is fallacious when it is the wrong authority. The Church is not the authority on whether or not a medical breakthrough is coming that will save your uncle from the clutches of death.
Fallacy of Relevance - Strawman Fallacy
Your attempt to justify removing the life support system is terrible. You devalue human life. You look at your Uncle Fred like a horse who broke a leg and since the horse is now useless, he deserves to die. May I suggest that the person we are talking about is a human being with intrinsic worth, and not a horse who has served its usefulness.
Acuna (2000), Advance Techniques For Critical Thinking, Philosophical Analysis (6th ed), 229-234.
Fallacy or Presumption - Petitio Principii
Removing the life support system of your Uncle Fred is wrong because it is wrong to take the life of another man being even if the motive is to alleviate pain and suffering. Only God has that right!
"Magdrodrop ka na ba? Because you need to drop out my subject now. I will not sign your dropping papers after I start with my lectures." -Prof. M, UPLB
Fallacy or Presumption - Complex Question
I've seen the Titanic three times because it is a good movie. It is obviously a good movie, otherwise, I would not have seen it three times.
Fallacy of Relevance -Ignoratio Elenchi
Please give me a passing grade because, if I fail, my old and sick mother will be very disappointed.
Fallacy of Defective Induction - Argumentum Ad Verecundiam
Vote for JdV because, according to Bro. Villanueva, he is declared by Jesus to be the next president.
Fallacy of Relevance - Argumentum Ad Baculum
If candidate Y will not win the presidency, there will be a people power revolution.
Acuna (2000), Advance Techniques For Critical Thinking, Philosophical Analysis (6th ed), 229-234.
Fallacy of Defective Induction - Hasty Generalization
"You can't speak French. I can't speak French. Petey Bellows can't speak French. I must therefore conclude that nobody at the University of Minnesota can speak French."
Love is a Fallacy by Max Shulman
"My dear, we have now spent five evenings together. We have gotten along splendidly. It is clear that we are well matched."
Fallacy of Defective Induction - False Cause
"Let's not take Bill on our picnic. Every time we take him out with us, it rains."
"A girl back home - Eula Becker, her name is. It never fails. Every single time we take her on a picnic it rains."
Fallacy of Relevance -Ignoratio Elenchi
"A man applies for a job. When the boss asks him what his qualifications are, he replies that he has a wife and six children at home, the wife is a helpless cripple, the children have nothing to eat, no clothes to wear, no shoes on their feet, there are no beds in the house, no coal in the cellar, and winter is coming."
"Polly, I love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars and the constellation of outer space. Please, my darling, say that you will go steady with me, for if you will not, life will be meaningless. I will languish. I will refuse my meals. I will wander the face of the earth, a shambling, hollow-eyed hulk."
Dadufalza, C.D. (1996), Reading into Writing 2. Love is a Fallacy by Max Shulman, 46-53.
Fallacy of Ambiguity - Accent
This type of advertisement that shifts the attention of the audience to a specific idea with the intention of ignoring or disregarding the other details. With written factors like capitalization of the phrase “P 1” in bold letters while the other text have small indiscrete text, the message has been shifted to the accented text. This causes a partial understanding of what the poster wants to convey with the audience. A Fallacy of Accent has been committed through the use of factors that shifted the meaning of the phrase to another one.
“Black” Propaganda
Placing 5th in the over-all senatorial elections, Maria Lourdes "Nancy" Sombillo Binay-Angeles received the highest amounts of bashing and hate notes across the social media that made her a popular ridicule to the senate.
Even before the said election, when the senator first introduced herself along with her “credentials” (in which she was a personal assistant to her father, Vice President Jojo Binay), the Filipino masses reacted violently and expressed their animosity through different social platforms in the internet.

Upper and middle class men in the internet began constructing their hate notes through reasoning that she cannot be an efficient senator because of her lack of experience and below par intellectual capacities just by judging her for what she is portrayed in media.

This perhaps explains why the vicious social media memes against Nancy Binay continue.  Instead of simmering down, they are becoming more intense.

This type of reasoning in which there is an attack to the person’s incapabilities or just by her looks, skin color, and/or appearance is a direct example of a Fallacy of Relevance - Argumentum Ad Hominem.

Fallacy of Relevance Argumentum Ad Hominem
Did Robert F. Kennedy know how to speak Filipino?
Fallacy of relevance -Ignoratio Elenchi
“It was texted to me by a friend. I found the idea good. I translated it into Tagalog [Filipino]. So what’s the problem?

Ano? Marunong nang mag-Tagalog si Kennedy? (What now? Does Kennedy now know how to speak in Tagalog)?”

Sotto told the Philippine Daily Inquirer when asked about his reaction to the fresh accusations about 'plagiarizing' the last part of Sotto's speech when he delivered the fourth and last part of his “turno en contra” speech against the reproductive health bill.
In English: If a plebiscite is held today, would you vote FOR or AGAINST the Constitution that PGMA wants?

In Pilipino: Kung gaganapin po ngayon ang plebisito para sa pag-aapruba ng isang panukalang bagong Konstitusyon na gusto ni Pangulong Arroyo, kayo po ba ay boboto ng OO SA BAGONG KONSTITUSYON NA GUSTO NG PANGULO o kayo po ba ay boboto ng HINDI SA BAGONG KONSTITUSYON NA GUSTO NG PANGULO?
Please notice that in the Pilipino version of the question, the phrase "na gusto ng pangulo" ("that PGMA wants") appears three times and is ALL CAPS in the original SWS questionnaire.

The emphasis upon and repetition of the phrase "that the President wants" is what loads this loaded question with a sly suggestion--As Rep. Jaraula pointed out--that ONLY the President supports the proposed new charter and because of that the President must want it for some selfish, illegitimate or hidden reason. Else why don't others want it too? The proposed Constitution is not described in any other way than that the President wants it.
Fallacy of Presumption - Complex question
Inglesia ni Cristo bloggers and cult members usually attacks people and curse/malign others who are not INC members. What a shame. This is actually where the INC members are actually good at; harassing and maligning people. Look at the INC blogger, resbak/Conrad. He is a classic example how INC member behaves in the internet.
Fallacy of Ambiguity - Division
Fallacy of Ambiguity - Composition
“I do not believe in that [survey] because the number of people going to Mass is going up. Last Holy Week, we had so many people in church. So as far as Sorsogon is concerned, I don’t believe in that survey.”
“My local parish seems to be doing fine, so the study must be wrong.”
Fallacy of Ambiguity - Equivocation
Lapu-lapu is the killer of Magellan.
Lapu-lapu is a fish.
Therefore, a fish is the killer of Magellan.
EMPLOYER TO A JOB APPLICANT: “In this job, we need someone who is responsible.”
APPLICANT: “Then I’m the one you are looking for. In my last job, every time anything went wrong, they said I was responsible.”
Erap, Cory, and FVR were captured by the Abu Sayyaf. They were brought to an island and were informed that they were going to be executed one by one. Cory was the first in line, and she thought of a way to distract the rebels. When she was already at the center and was bout to be shot dead, she shouted, “EARTHQUAKE!” The rebels panicked. Cory took this chance to escape. The rebels, seeing that Cory had fled, decided that FVR be executed next. FVR did the same thing, and shouted, “TIDAL WAVE!” The rebels scampered, and FVR took the opportunity to flee. Realizing that he was the only hostage left, Erap thought of doing the same, and shouted, “FIRE!” After three seconds, he dropped dead.
Source: Sir Raniel Reyes - Fallacy Demo (UST)
Fallacy of Ambiguity - Amphiboly
"I would like to buy a clock for my boyfriend with three hands."
FOR RENT: Furnished room just right for a single lady with comfort room
and free water.

Source: Sir Raniel Reyes - Fallacy Demo (UST)
Language "Trend"
Philippines Without Borders: (on mastering the English language)

“Because everybody else is trying to do the same. Right now, there are probably close to 400 million native English speakers, making English the third largest language next to Mandarin Chinese and Spanish…We should not dilly-dally on embracing policies that would restore the importance of English in Philippine society.”
Basically, since the English language is popular and, not to mention, the most used language worldwide, the Blogspot site stated that it is the cause why Filipinos must master it. The assumption that the majority has been doing it (“everybody else is trying to do the same”) has been marked as valid makes it a bandwagon fallacy.
Argumentum Ad Populum - Bandwagon Fallacy
A Day of Character
The statement included was from an anonymous reader, commenting on a CNN page about the last year’s super typhoon Haiyan and its devastating remains.
Fallacy of Relevance Argumentum Ad Populum (Emotion)
In order to gain acceptance of the conclusion, in this case, that strong human spirit is seen at its finest on the Filipino people, the reader has used words that would appeal to the emotions (or arouse the emotions) of the audience, describing Filipinos despite being damaged by the typhoon.
If not, then not
Leila B. Salaverria stated on her article (Philippine Daily Inquirer) that “Akbayan Rep. Walden Bello threatened, on Wednesday [August 14th, 2013], to have the Department of Labor and Employment’s proposed P10.5 billion budget for 2014 cut by 25 percent if it would not pursue criminal or administrative penalties against personnel implicated in the alleged sexual exploitation of distressed Filipino workers in Middle East countries.”
Fallacy of Relevance – Argumentum ad baculum
“If the DoLE does not endorse criminal penalties or undertake substantive administrative actions against personnel attached to the DoLE in the Middle East, then I will be forced to file a resolution cutting your budget by 25 percent,” said Bello.

It is a fallacy when the appeal is not logically related to the claim being made.
Fallacy of Presumption - Accident
One has to tell the truth always. Thus, if a murderer confesses his crime to the priest, it is but proper for the priest to reveal the truth to the police authorities.
We have to be generous to others. Thus, during examination we have to share our answers with our seatmate to show that we are generous.
Source: Sir Raniel Reyes - Fallacy Demo (UST)
Fallacy of Defective Induction - False Cause
Diego scratches his nose and tummy. After one minute, the volcano erupts. Hence, the scratching of Diego’s nose and tummy causes the eruption.

Fallacy of Defective Induction - Argumentum Ad Verecundiam
These pills must be safe and effective. They have been endorsed by Justin Bieber, a famous American singer.

Sleeping with you hair wet can make you blind. That is what Son Gohan said!
Source: Sir Raniel Reyes - Fallacy Demo (UST)
Fallacy of Relevance - Ignoratio Elenchi
A student should be given a passing grade because he is soon to graduate, or because if he fails the subject, his parents would kill him.

You honor, my client, John Santos, does not deserve to be imprisoned. He has five small children, and a wife suffering from breast cancer.
Fallacy of Ambiguity - Equivocation
"Okay, you may now pass the exam...*students- pasa ng exam sheets sa next person* ...malinaw ang instruction ko ha, PASS the exam."
- Sir Egarguin, UPLB
Fallacy of Defective Induction - Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam
Since the class has no questions concerning the topics discussed in class, the class is ready for a test.
Falalcy of Ambiguity - Amphiboly
The tour guide said that standing in Greenwich Village, the Empire State building could easily be seen. It follows that the Empire State Building is in Greenwhich Village.

John told Henry that he made a mistake. It follows that John has at least the courage to admit his own mistakes.

Professor Johnson said that he will give a lecture about heart failure in the biology lecture hall. It must be the case that a number of heart failures have occured then recently.
Fallacy of Presumption - Complex Question
Tell us, on April 9, did you see the defendant shoot the deceased? (leading question)
Tell us, what did you see on April 9? (straight question)

Are you planning to quit your job and thereby doom yourself to failure and despair?
Fallacy of Presumption - Petitio Principii
Murder is morally wrong. This being the case, it follows that abortion is morally wrong.

It's obvious that the poor in this country should be given handouts from the government. After all, these people earn less than the average citizen.

Clearly, terminally ill patients have a right to doctor assisted suicide. After all, many of these people are unable to commit suicide by themselves.
Fallacy of Presumption - Accident
Freedom of speech is a constitutionally guaranteed right. Therefore, John Q. Radical should not be arrested for his speech that incited the riot last week.

Property should be returned to its rightful owner. That drunken sailor who is starting a fight with his opponents at the pool table lent you his .45-caliber pistol, and now he wants it back. Therefore, you should return it to him now.
Fallacy of Ambiguity - Accent
"FM Declares Martial Law"
"We should not speak ill of our friends"
[but we can speak well of them.]

"We should not speak ill of our friends"
[but we can speak ill of our enemies.]
Full transcript