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Renewable Energy

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Denise Layla Miram

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of Renewable Energy

A Presentation by Group 5 Renewable Energy What is Renewable Energy? natural energy unlimited supply Renewable Energy vs. Alternative Energy renewable = natural source alternative = any source Benefits of Renewable Energy jobs and economy environmental benefits stability Chemistry Behind Renewable Energy Solar Energy energy derived from the sun = solar radiation solar powered electrical generation
relies on photovoltaics and heat engines *photovaltaics (PV) - method of generating electrical power
-converts solar radiation into direct current electricity
-uses semiconductors that exhibit the photovaltaic effect In the Philippines... CEPALCO’S 1MWP PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT -Cagayan de Oro -6,500 solar panels and set on a 2 hectares of land -ability to supply the energy requirement of not less than 900 CEPALCO residential consumers -capacity to produce not less than 14,000,000 kWh electricity per year Advantages Philippines’ location and being tropical
inexhaustible fuel source
no pollution
often an excellent supplement to other renewable sources
versatile Disadvantages very diffuse source = low energy production
-large number of solar panels
- large land areas
limited to only areas with lots of sunlight Wind Energy conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy wind turbine converts kinetic energy from the wind mounted on a tower to capture the most energy catch the wind's energy with their propeller-like blades In the Philippines... WIND FARM IN BANGUI, ILOCOS NORTE perfect geography coast faces South China Sea 30 wind mill units along the entire stretch of the coast supports about 40 percent of the power needed by Ilocos Norte hardly emit greenhouse gases and are generally safe for the other ecosystems that exist within the area Advantages natural resources
-the Philippines' potential is attributed to its location in the Asia-Pacific monsoon belt technology situation support industry/infrastructure Disadvantages high cost long time to cover initial investment Hydroelectric Power flowing water creates energy common types: dam on a river to store water in a reservoir micro hydro systems - used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS) run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems -harness energy without large reservoirs In the Philippines... multipurpose hydroelectric power system strategy in designing SAN ROQUE DAM capacity of 85 MW surplus power that reduces dependence on imported fuel oil
lowers the variable operating expenses of other power plants offers substantial power benefits Advantages the Philippines is rich in bodies of water
inexhaustible fuel source
minimal environmental impact
viable source--relatively useful levels of energy production
can be used throughout the world Disadvantages smaller models depend on availability of fast flowing streams or rivers
Run-of-the-River plants can impact the mobility of fish and other river life. Bioenergy comes from any fuel that is derived from biomass *biomass - recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts most widely used form of renewable energy Biodegradable Waste Wet Wastes - feedlots, food processing Methane Gas Agricultural products and by products *by-product- something produced in the making of something else Household Garbage Cellulose and lignin Electricity! burn Sugar breakdown, CO2, heat and steam Photosynthesis Process Advantages reduces or eliminates nearly all forms of air pollution can provide households with incomes, livelihood activities and employment very accessible anywhere in the world Disadvantages greenhouse gases produced by burning extra costs of installing technology to process and recycle wastes expensive to collect, harvest and store raw materials large scale crop production will use vast areas of land and water, representing major problems Hydrogen Examples water
hydrocarbons
other renewable energy and renewably generated electricity simplest element (1 proton 1 electron)
most plentiful element in the world
always combines with other elements
found in many organic compounds
high in energy hydrogen is separated reforming, biomass gasification and electrolysis Process fuel cell - changes the chemical energy of a fuel (as
hydrogen) into electrical energy
- will produce electricity as long as fuel (hydrogen) is supplied, never losing its charge
- can be used as a source of heat and electricity for buildings, and as an electrical power source for electric motors propelling vehicles
- operate best on pure hydrogen Advantages can be transported to places where it is needed
can someday be like electricity, an important energy carrier
can be conveniently stored
produces almost no pollution
very abundant on earth Disadvantages expensive cost Geothermal Energy heat from the earth
clean and sustainable
may come from shallow ground, hot water or hot rock, or even in magma deep down the earth Examples geysers
hot springs
geothermal heat pumps geothermal heat pump system consists of a heat pump, an air delivery system (ductwork), and a heat exchanger-a system of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building Advantages reduces reliance on fossil fuels
does not create any pollution
has been used at home, work place, etc. Disadvantages not widespread source of energy
high installation cost
can run out of steam
may release harmful gases
cannot easily be transported Ocean Energy energy derived in any manner from the vast body of salt water
produces thermal energy and mechanical energy Types of Electricity Conversion closed cycle - uses ocean's surface water to vaporized working fluid, which expands and turns turbine
open cycle - boils the seawater
hybrid a. thermal energy - from sun's heat
b. mechanical energy - driven by moons and winds (tides
and waves)
- involves mechanical devices A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbines, activating a generator. Advantages eco-friendly
can be transformed into electricity
meets the energy demand of the growing population and industries
does not cost much compared to technologies used to produce other renewable energy Disadvantages may lead to the displacement of wildlife habitat
barrage system requires salt resistant parts and high maintenance
can only be used where there is suitable tidal flow or wave motion
disrupts fish migration, kills fish and thus, disrupts ecosystem Current State of RE in the Philippines Top 5 Countries Using RE Other Countries Using Renewable Energy 5. Brazil 5 PERCENT OF WORLD TOTAL renowned for its biofuel production, also involved with developing technologies such as solar water heating Paulo Afonso Hydroelectronic Powerplant in State of Bahia 4. China 7. 6 PERCENT OF WOLRD TOTAL largest energy consumer and second-largest net importer of oil also the global leader in clean energy sector investment, with half of its financing in wind Windfarm in Xinjiang, China 3. Spain 7.8 PERCENT OF WORLD TOTAL imports the majority of its energy, though in April wind power became its largest source of electricity generation Union Fenosa’s Aerogenerator 2. Germany 11.7 PERCENT OF WORLD TOTAL in 2010 nearly 17% (more than 100 TWH) of Germany's electricity supply (603 TWH) was produced from renewable energy sources renewable electricity in 2010 was 101.7 TWh including wind power 36.5 TWh, biomass and biowaste 33.5 TWh, hydropower 19.7 TWh renewable electric power produced in 2009 by energy source 1. United States of America 24.7 PERCENT OF WOLRD TOTAL the states of Iowa, North Dakota, and California each generate more than 10 percent of their electricity supply from wind power, solar power, and/or geothermal power Brazos Wind Ranch in Texas Fossil Fuels most common and widely-used energy resources in the Philippines Petroleum Gas / Oil petroleum exploration in the country started in 1896 in Cebu petroleum reserves: 1. Cagayan Valley Basin and Agusan-Davao Basin
2. Northwest Palawan Basin and Sulu Sea Basin Coal solid organic materials with some mineral matter one of the most sought-after energy sources worldwide effects:
processing fossil fuels for energy requires burning, which, in turn, results in large amounts of carbon emissions into the atmosphere Natural Gas mixture of gases formed from fossil remains of plants and animals methane Malampaya Philippines and Renewable Energy rapid growth in renewable energy plants in the South East Asian region
Renewable Energy Act of 2008: World Bank and Asian Development Bank Geothermal Energy world’s second-largest producer of geothermal energy most significant renewable energy source in the Philippines
around 25 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (MMBFOE)
2,600 MW
Unified Leyte Geothermal Field Hydroelectric Energy vast hydroelectric potential
produces 2,518 MW of power in the country Agus Hydroelectric Plant system Bio, Solar, and Wind Energy Bioenergy technologies in use today: bagasse (sugar cane fiber) as boiler fuel, crop drying rice and coconut husks, and fuelwood
San Carlos Ethanol Plant Solar Energy said to be the cheapest alternative to fuel-based power
fastest technology that can be utilized to address power shortage CEPALCO Photovaltic Power Plant in Cagayan de Oro Wind Energy Philippines being in the Asia-Pacific monsoon belt
10,000 sq. km. of land potentially fit for wind energy production Bangui Wind Farm Philippine Laws on Renewable Energy EPIRA ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY REFORM ACT of 2001 (RA 9136) signed by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on June 8, 2001
designed to bring down electricity rates
improve the delivery of power supply to end-users
encouraging greater competition and efficiency in the electricity industry All About CHOICE... Consumer Empowerment giving consumers the power to choose their source of electricity Higher Efficiency adequate and reliable power supply at lower rates Open Access to transmission and distribution network/ facilities Industry Accountability higher levels of environmental, health and safety standards Competition in Generation and Supply between and among generating companies where prices will be market-driven and competitive Electricity Tariff Unbundling itemization and the segregation of various components of electricity tariffs to make the rates more transparent ->aim: reliable and competitively priced electricity Problems Caused by EPIRA 1. unable to provide an adequate framework to ensure long term security of power supply fully privatized set-up failed to respond to the system's requirements
Visayas - tightening of power supply
Mindanao - power shortages
Luzon - narrowing of reserves 2. failed to arrest the continuing financial obligations of PSALM *PSALM - Power Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corporation
*NPC - National Power Corporation US$16.39 billion - EPIRA enacted US$15.82 billion - after selling 91.73% (US$10.65 billion) of NPC/PSALM assets EPIRA after ten years: facilitate the privatization of assets only
BUT liabilities remain at almost the same levels 3. 2010 report: our average rate of PhP8.14 per kWh is now the highest rate in Asia PSALM can only look to consumers to cover its financial obligations stranded debts = Php 65 billion
stranded contract costs = Php 74.3 billion
total = Php 139.3 billion emerging ownership structure of the industry San Miguel Energy Corporation = 22%
Lopez = 18%
Aboitiz = 14% exclusive dealing, dividing territories, vertical and horizontal integration, and price leading Renewable Energy Act of 2008 RA 9513 1) accelerate the exploration and development of renewable energy resources achieve energy self-reliance
reduce the country’s dependence on fossil fuels
minimize the country’s exposure to price fluctuations in the international markets
adoption of clean energy to mitigate climate change 2) increase the use of renewable energy regulating the development of national and local capabilities
promoting its efficient and cost-effective application 3) encourage the utilization as tools to prevent/reduce harmful emissions balance the goals of economic growth and development with the protection of health and the environment 4) establish the necessary infrastructure and mechanism signed into law on December 2008
legal and institutionalized framework for harmonizing the policies for RE development
Department of Energy as lead agency Goals Brazil Effects of RE in Other Countries after the oil shock in the 1970's, Brazil focused on developing sugarcane ethanol sugarcane ethanol "the most successful alternative fuel to date" * world's first sustainable biofuels economy and the biofuel industry leader * clean air in Brazil and claimed energy security * became the 2nd largest producer of ethanol fuel in 2012; largest exporter China RE is helping China complete its economic transformation & achieve "energy security" china's wind turbine manufacturing industry became the largest in the world in 4 years largest manufacturer of Solar PV, supplying 40% worldwide Spain wind power became its largest source of electricity generation Spain's clean energy market has been a magnet for investment over the past decade most advanced countries in development of solar energy by 2020 National Renewable Energy Program Germany referring to renewables as a “job motor for Germany" reports a 55% increase in the total number of “green” jobs since 2004 increased energy security from decreased reliance on fuel imports United States of America economic development and jobs in manufacturing, installation, and more diversifying energy supply and reducing dependence on imported fuels generating energy that produces no anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduces air pollution launched on June 14, 2011
outlines the policy framework in Renewable Energy Act of 2008
time frame: 2011 to 2030 lay down the foundation for developing the RE resources
stimulate investments in the RE sector
develop technologies
push national and local renewable energy planning energy for our children's children's children •seeks to increase RE-based capacity to an estimated 15,304 MW by the year 2030, almost triple the 2010 level of 5,369 MW Goals increase geothermal by 75%
increase hydropower by 160%
deliver additional 277 MW biomass power capacities
attain wind power grid parity with 2,345 MW additional capacities
mainstream additional 284 MW solar power and aspirational target of 1,528 MW
develop 1st ocean energy facility Final Installation Targets maximize cheaper technologies (run-of-river hydro and biomass)
manage more expensive RE resources (wind, solar, ocean) expected milestones over 2011 to 2030 President Aquino on NREP “Renewable energy will fuel our future.” The launch of the NREP “is a symbolic first step in our journey towards fulfilling our vision of a Philippines unbound from the vagaries of the world oil market - a Philippines where we can choose not to sacrifice the environment, particularly the air we breathe, just to power our industries.” Test Yourself! Chemistry Behind Renewable Energy ‎1. What do you call the method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity? Renewable Energy 1. Renewable energy is what kind of energy? 2. Renewable energy refers to what kind of source? 3. Give 2 benefits of RE. natural energy natural source photovoltaics 2. It is a device that converts kinetic energy from wind with its propeller-like blades. wind turbine 3. Where in the only wind farm in the Philippines located? Bangui, Ilocos Norte 4. What king of renewable energy uses flowing water to create energy that can be captured and turned into electricity? hydroelectric power 5. What type of Hydropower derive kinetic energy from rivers and oceans without the creation of large reservoir? run-of-the-river hydroelectric systems Test Yourself! 1. What are the most common and widely-used energy resources in the Philippines? 2. What is the main ingredient in natural gas? 3. What is the Philippines' rank as one of the world's biggest producers of geothermal energy? 4. Name the facility that produces the most geothermal energy in the Philippines. 5. Which type of renewable energy is said to be the cheapest alternative to fuel-based energy in the country? fossil fuels methane second Unified Leyte Geothermal Field solar energy Test Yourself! 1. What are the top 5 nations using RE? Brazil, China, Spain, Germany, and USA 2. What is "the most successful alternative fuel to date"? sugarcane ethanol 3. What is referred to as the "job motor for Germany"? renewables Philippine Laws on RE 1. What is the RA code of the Renewable Energy Act of 2008? 5. What is the time frame for the enactment of NREP? 3. Which president signed the EPIRA on June 8, 2001? 4. When was NREP launched? 2. What does NREP stand for? RA 9513 National Renewable Energy Program PGMA June 14, 2011 2011-2030 Other Countries Using RE 1. What do you call a plant material or an animal waste that is used especially as a source of fuel? Chemistry Behind Renewable Energy biomass 2. What is a device that continuously changes the chemical energy of a fuel (as hydrogen) into electrical energy? fuel cell 3. What system consists of a heat pump, an air delivery system, and a heat exchanger? geothermal heat pump system 4. What are the three types of electricity conversion for which the ocean energy is applied? (a) closed cycle (b) open cycle (c) hybrid 5. What is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbines, activating a generator? barrage jobs and economy, stability, energy for our children's children's children, environmental benefits Current State of RE in the Philippines THE END!
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