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Phase Changes

How matter changes from one state to another.
by

Kaye Schwartz

on 27 October 2016

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Transcript of Phase Changes

messin' with matter
phase changes
And what about evaporation?
Evaporation is the phase change from
Liquid to gas
Particle speed increases
Density decreases
Particles spread apart
Heat increases
Endothermic change
so...is that it?
Well, no.
Matter can also go from a solid directly to a gas.


coooool.....
(actually it *takes* heat...)
Then, what is freezing?
Freezing is the phase change from
Liquid to solid
Particle speed decreases
Density increases
(Particles move closer together)
Heat decreases
Exothermic change
Phase Changes
How matter changes from one state to another
it's all about the heat, baby!!
What is a phase change or a change of state?
A change of state is when matter changes from one state (solid, liquid, gas) to another state
So...if you add heat...
An
endothermic change
is when
energy (heat) is absorbed
as the substance changes state
When energy is absorbed, the
particles heat up and start moving faster
, causing the object to melt (fuse), or evaporate.

Examples of Endothermic Changes
add heat,
ice melts!

Gallium metal has such a low melting point, it will melt in your hand!
And if I take the heat away?
An exothermic change is a change of state when energy (heat) is released or removed

When you remove heat, the particles slow down; they will freeze or condense

What are some examples of an Exothermic Change?
if you remove the heat from water, it will turn to solid ice!
and what's going on here?
heat is leaving the lava, cooling it off into solid rock!

What is melting?
It is a phase change from:
Solid to liquid
The particle speed increases
Density decreases (particles spread apart)
Heat increases- you ADD heat!
Endothermic change

Are evaporation and vaporization the same thing?
well...sure.
evaporation happens at a fairly slow pace, where as vaporization occurs rapidly.
or
Can it go the other way?
Sure! That's called Condensation!
Condensation is the phase change from a
Gas to liquid
Particle speed decreases
Density increases
Particles come closer together
Heat decreases
Exothermic change
Water vapor from the air can condense to a liquid!
or like the water vapor in the bathroom condensing onto the mirror in the morning...

don't you just *hate* that?
sublimation
is what the process is called when a solid gets SO MUCH heat SO FAST it phases directly to a gas!
Particle speed increases
Density decreases
Particles spread out
Heat INCREASES
Endothermic change
so when does that even happen?
Dry Ice (solid carbon dioxide) turns into
carbon dioxide in the form of a gas.
In order for carbon dioxide to exist as a solid, the temperature must be -109.3°F (-78.5°C).
can it go the other way??
Sure it can!
Deposition is when heat is taken away from a gas SO quickly, it phases directly to a solid.

now THAT'S cool!!
Particle speed decreases
Density increases
Particles come closer together
Heat DECREASES
Exothermic change
The American Meteorological Society defines frost as "The fuzzy layer of ice crystals on a cold object, such as a window or bridge, that forms by direct deposition of water vapor to solid ice."
When sunlight hits solid snow, sometimes it can heat up so fast it phases directly into water vapor. Sometimes sublimation can happen when there's no sunlight at all!
And that's it for phase changes!
but of course, as in all science, that's just the "tip of the iceberg!"
S2,
Ms. S
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