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Outcomes-Based Education and Learning Outcomes

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Susan Mila Alvarez

on 26 September 2014

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Transcript of Outcomes-Based Education and Learning Outcomes

Outcomes-Based Education and Learning Outcomes

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Outcomes-Based Education
means clearly focusing and organizing everything in an educational system around what is essential for all students to be able to do successfully at the end of their learning experiences. This means starting with a clear picture of what is important for students to be able to do, then organizing the curriculum, instruction, and assessment to make sure this learning ultimately happens” (Spady, 1994:1).
Expected outcome
Participants will appreciate outcomes-based learning and understand OBE principles and their implications to:

a. Planning/Programming
b. Teaching
c. Assessing student performance

Objectives vs. Outcomes

Statements of aims /objectives focus on what the teacher plans to do.

Statements of outcomes focus on the what student should be able to do after instruction.

OBE is an approach to planning, delivering and evaluating instruction that requires administrators, teachers and students to focus their attention and efforts on the
desired results of education
—results that are expressed in terms of
individual student learning.

Clarity of focus
Designing backwards
High expectations
Expanded opportunities

Principles of Outcomes-Based Education

OBE is underpinned by three basic premises:

• All students can learn and succeed, but not
all in the same time or in the same way.

• Successful learning promotes even more
successful learning.

• Schools and teachers control the conditions
that determine whether or not students are
successful at school learning.

If teachers want all students to learn well and to achieve specific outcomes, there are certain instructional procedures that must be followed, and each has implications for the way teachers plan and program:

1. Teachers must prepare their students adequately so that they can succeed. This requires teachers to understand exactly what they want students to learn, to anticipate difficulties that students might have and plan to minimise these difficulties.

Implications for Teachers

2. Teachers must create a positive learning environment in which students know that they will be helped in their learning no matter how easy or difficult they might find the learning process.

3. Teachers must help their students to understand what they have to learn, why they should learn it (including what use it will be to them in the future), and how they will know when they have learned it.

4. Teachers must use a variety of methods of instruction in order to help each student to learn. You should not assume that all students can learn equally well from one particular teaching strategy, and you should not assume that any particular teaching strategy is a suitable way to help students achieve all learning outcomes.

5. Teachers must provide students with sufficient opportunities to practise using the new knowledge and skills that they gain, so that under the teacher’s guidance they can explore and experiment with their new learning, correct errors and adjust their thinking

6. Teachers must help each student to bring each learning episode (lesson or group of lessons) to a personal closure so that they are aware of what they learned and where it is leading them.

Objectives are often written more in terms of teaching intentions, and typically indicate the subject content that the teacher(s) intends to cover.

Learning outcomes, on the other hand, are more student-centered and describe what it is that the learner should learn.

Learning outcomes are statements that specify what learners will know or be able to do as a result of a learning activity; i.e., the outcomes that students must meet on the way to attaining a particular degree.

Lesson outcomes

Outcomes of GE Curriculum
Outcomes of other program components
Degree Program Outcomes
Outcomes of AH Courses
Outcomes of MST Courses
Outcomes of SSP Courses
Describe what the student will be able to demonstrate after the lesson in terms of knowledge, understanding, abilities and dispositions.
Describe the knowledge and understanding, skills and dispositions that the student will be able to demonstrate after completing your course.
Describe the kind of graduate that will emerge as a product of your program in terms of knowledge and understandings, proficiencies and attitudes.
That outcomes are central to the decisions teachers make about instruction and assessment;

That it is important to gather evidences about student learning in relation to the outcomes;

That the use of evidences determines how well students are achieving in relation to the outcomes.

This model for developing assessment activities emphasizes:

Adapted from Biggs (1999)

Intended Learning Outcomes

Assessment methods
should be designed to assess learning outcomes

Align learning outcomes with instruction and assessment.

Learning and teaching activities should be designed to meet learning outcomes.

Assessment – ongoing process of collecting and analyzing information relative to learning outcomes

Evaluation – the interpretation of evidence, judgment and comparison between intended and actual, and use information to make improvements.

Assessment vs. Evaluation


Articulate student learning outcomes
Connect the outcomes to the program requirements
Articulate your teaching priorities with respect to learning outcomes
Select appropriate assessment tools
Connect assessment methods with outcomes
Formulate assessment plan for gathering and collecting the data
Collect and analyze the data
Compare actual results with expected results
Decide on how to give feedback to students
Use results for improvement

Planning for assessment

Rubric as “scoring guidelines” or “performance criteria”:
It is a set of criteria with a fixed scale and a list of characteristics used for judging a particular product or performance.
It seeks to illustrate and define aspects of understanding, reasoning, and proficiency inherent in the assessed performance or product

Rubric – is derived from the Latin expression, “rubica terra” - “red earth” which was used centuries ago to mark or signify something of importance.

RUBRICS: An alternative scoring scheme

May be analytic or holistic.
Analytic rubric specifies the criteria and the levels of performances
Holistic rubric accounts for the overall quality of the performance or product.


When most students seem to be ready to demonstrate mastery, assess their learning, or have the students assess their own learning through an appropriate form of self-assessment or peer assessment. This assessment should take into account the context in which outcomes should be demonstrated.

Students who have achieved mastery then work on enrichment activities while those who have not achieved mastery receive additional instruction and practice.

Outcomes-Based Assessment
1. What evidences of learning are required?
2. How will these evidences be gathered?
3. What content and experiences will allow students to demonstrate these outcomes?
4. How will feedback be provided?
5. Is there sufficient evidence that students made progress as a result of these experiences?
All students then take a summative test.

Those who do not demonstrate mastery on this test receive an “incomplete” grade that they are required to convert to a mastery level through additional effort.

Students are encouraged to take some responsibility for their own learning, and continued support from the teacher becomes contingent upon the students’ acceptance of this responsibility.

Your main focus should be on LEARNING rather than teaching.

Students cannot learn if they do not THINK.
Thinking is facilitated by the PROCESSES that you use to engage students with the content, as well as by the CONTENT itself.
Your subject does not exist in isolation - you have to help students make LINKS to other subjects.
You have a responsibility to help students learn how to learn.
In an OBE system, it is often suggested that, "learners are responsible for their own learning and progress" (Cockburn, 1997:6)
Significant outcomes > fundamental life roles
Spady suggested that one way to prepare students for these life roles was to "continually engage students in both individual and team activities that explore important issues and phenomena, use multiple media and technologies, create products that embody the results of students' explorations, and call for students to explain their work and products to adult and and student audiences" (1994:22 in Killen, 2000)
Bautista, Aurora Fe (2013). Performance Assessment
Padilla, Portia P. (2013). Outcomes-Based Learning and Teaching Presentation
Killen, Roy (2000). Outcomes-Based Education: Principles and Possibilities
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