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andres avellaneda

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Transcript of Globalization

Discovery of the Americas Treaty of Tordesillas First reported African slaves in The New World 1502 1492 1496 1512 Copernicus writes Commentariolus, and moves the sun to the center of the solar system. 1519–21 Hernán Cortés leads theSpanish conquest of Mexico. 1531–32 The Church of England breaks away from the Roman Catholic Church and recognizes King Henry VIII as the head of the Church. 1541 Amazon River is encountered and explored by Francisco de Orellana. 1565 The Hospitallers defeat the Ottoman Empire at the Siege of Malta 1572 Spanish conquerors apprehend the last Inca leader Tupak Amaru at Vilcabamba, Peru, and execute him in Cuzco. 1607 Jamestown, Virginia, is settled as what would become the first permanent English colony in North America. 1632 Taj Mahal building work started in Agra, India by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal 1648 The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War and marks the ends of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire as major European powers. 1664 British troops capture New Amsterdam and rename it New York. 1666 The Great Fire of London. It is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's 80,000 inhabitants 1673 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek is the first to observe microbes with a homemade microscope, using samples he collected from his teeth scrapings, raindrops, and his own feces. He calls them "animalcules." 1678 The Treaty of Nijmegen ends various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire. 1687 Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science" marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. 1694 The Bank of England is established.

Is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. 1699 Thomas Savery demonstrates his first steam engine to the Royal Society.
Steam engines can be said to have been the moving force behind the Industrial Revolution and saw widespread commercial use driving machinery in factories, mills and mines; powering pumping stations; and propelling transport appliances such as railway locomotives, ships and road vehicles. Their use in agriculture led to an increase in the land available for cultivation 1707 Act of Union passed merging the Scottish and the English Parliaments, thus establishing the Kingdom of Great Britain. 1710 The world's first copyright legislation, Britain's Statute of Anne, becomes effective. 1756 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. 1756–1763 Seven Years' War fought among European powers in various theaters around the world. The Revolutionary War in the United States, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, but gradually grew into a world war between Britain on one side and the newly formed United States, France, Netherlands and Spain on the other. The main result was an American victory and European recognition of the independence of the United States, with mixed results for the other powers. 1775–1783: American Revolutionary War 1770 Ludwig van Beethoven (17 December 1770) A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets. He also composed other chamber music, choral works (including the celebrated Missa Solemnis), and songs. 1776 United States Declaration of Independence adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they now formed a new nation--the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved on July 2. A committee had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when congress voted on independence. Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which congress would edit to produce the final version. 1789–1799 The French Revolution 1795 The Marseillaise officially adopted as the French national anthem. Napoleon staged a coup d'état and became First Consul of France. 1799 1800s Earliest Version of Multi-National Corporations
The English East India Company had a monopoly on the sale of all commodities imported into England from the “East Indies”. Through this, they expanded their power base in India. 1804 Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French. World population reaches 1 billion. 1804 1804 Morphine first isolated. 1805 The Battle of Trafalgar eliminates the French and Spanish naval fleets and allows for British dominance of the seas, a major factor for the success of the British Empire later in the century. 1810s–1820s: Most of the Latin American colonies free themselves from the Spanish and Portuguese Empires after the Latin American wars of independence. 1837 Telegraphy patented by Samuel Morse 1848 The Communist Manifesto published in London by
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 1851 The Great Exhibition in London was the world's first international Expo or World's Fair. 1863 Formation of the International Red Cross is followed by the adoption of the First Geneva Convention in 1864. Gregor Mendel formulates his laws of inheritance.
That was the beginning of the Chromosome, DNA and
Genome theories 1865
Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier attempt in 1858.
The first was laid across the floor of the Atlantic from Telegraph Field, Foilhommerum Bay, Valentia Island in western Ireland to Heart's Content in eastern Newfoundland. The first communications occurred August 16, 1858, reducing the communication time between North America and Europe from ten days – the time it took to deliver a message by ship – to a matter of minutes. Transatlantic telegraph cables have been replaced by transatlantic telecommunications cables. 1866 1869 First Transcontinental Railroad completed in United States on May 10. 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic table. The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of the larger Industrial Revolution corresponding to the latter half of the 19th century until World War I. It is considered to have begun with Bessemer steel in the 1860s and culminated in mass production and the production line.

The Second Industrial Revolution saw rapid industrial development in Western Europe (Britain, Germany, France, the Low Countries) as well as the United States and Japan. It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. 1871–1914: 1877 Thomas Edison invents the phonograph Thomas Edison tests his first light bulb. 1879 Coca-Cola is developed .
The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton's French Wine Coca. 1886 1886 Construction of the Statue of Liberty 1889 Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris. Aspirin patented. 1889 1896 Olympic Games revived in Athens. Construction of the Panama Canal begins 1904 Albert Einstein's formulation of relativity 1905 First controlled heavier-than-air flight of the Wright Brothers 1903 World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until the start of World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter. It involved all the world's great powers which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war). These alliances both reorganised (Italy fought for the Allies) and expanded as more nations entered the war. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of technological advancements that led to enormous increases in the lethality of weapons without corresponding improvements in protection or mobility. It was the sixth-deadliest conflict in world history, subsequently paving the way for various political changes, such as revolutions in many of the nations involved. 1914 1928 Discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming Wall Street crash of 1929 and the beginning of the Great Depression 1929 First FIFA World Cup hosted 1930 Hitler declares himself Fuhrer of Germany 1934 World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that was underway by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it resulted in 50 million to over 73 million fatalities. These deaths make World War II by far the deadliest conflict in all of human history. 1939-1945 D- DAY Pearl Harbor Battle of Bulge Iwo Jima Creation of the atomic bomb, and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945
United Nations founded 1945 1953 Discovery of DNA 1957 Launch of Sputnik 1 and the beginning
of the Space Age First documented AIDS cases. 1959 The Beatles is formed in Liverpool. 1960
Civil Rights Act of 1964 abolishes segregation in the USA 1964 1971 Invention of the microchip Steve Jobs finishes his first significant invention, Apple I 1976 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 1979 Death of John Lennon. 1980
Challenger and Chernobyl disasters 1986 Fall of the Berlin Wall; 1989 revolution and collapse of the Soviet Bloc in Europe 1989 Sir Tim Berners-Lee
invents the World Wide Web. 1990 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change releases its first assessment report, linking increases in carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere, and resultant rise in global temperature, to human activities. 1990 Establishment of the World Trade Organization. 1995 Euro is introduced 1999 9/11 attacks destroy the World Trade Center in New York, damage the Pentagon in Washington, DC. War on Terror declared. 2001 The Human Genome Project is completed. 2003 facebook is founded 2004 Barack Obama is elected President of the United States 2008 Occupy movement inspires worldwide protests, bringing economic inequality under capitalism to attention. 2011 Benedict XVI quits 2013 The website Wikileaks releases thousands of classified US documents. 2010 world revolutions against the dictators 2012
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