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Experience & Learning

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DuJuan Johnson

on 16 March 2016

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Transcript of Experience & Learning

We learn from experience in a variety of ways
Five perspectives proposed by Fenwick that raise important questions about the nature of experience:
1. Reflecting on concrete experience.
2. Participating in a community of practice.
3. Getting in touch with unconscious desires and fears.
4. Resisting dominant social norms of experience.
5. Exploring ecological relationships between cognition and environment.
Learning From Life Experiences
All genuine education comes about through experience.
Not all experiences are genuinely or equally educative.
Some experiences mis-educate.
Models of Experiential Learning
Educators' Role and Purpose
Educators serve as facilitators of reflection and encourage learners to discuss and reflect on concrete experiences in a trusting, open environment.
Educators serve as a catalyst.
Educator may become the student's coach or mentor.
Educator becomes the assessor of the learners' prior experiential learning.
Experience & Learning
John Dewey
Read more from Tara Fenwick: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED454418.pdf
What The Experts Have Said About Experience & Learning...
All genuine education comes about through experience.
The resource of highest value in adult education is the learner's experience.

John Dewey
E.C. Lindeman





Merriam. S. B. Caffarell. R.S. & Baumgartner. L. (2007). Learning
in adulthood: a comprehensive guide (3rd ed.) San Francisco:


Retrieved from and linked to Academia.edu

Retrieved from and linked to personal.psu.edu
Direct Embodied Experience
Stimulated Experience
Reliving a Past Experience
Methods Association with Reflection and Situative Paradigm
Kolb's Model
Jarvis’s Model
Our construction of our experiences is affected by our “psychological history”
Nonreflective learning: remembering an experience and repeating it or just doing what they are told to do.
Reflective learning: when we plan, monitor, and reflect upon our experiences.

Boud and Walker
Took a situated approach to experiential learning
Original model consisted of:
1. Returning to and replaying the experience.
2. Attending to the feelings that the experience provoked.
3. Reevaluating the experience.

Usher, Bryant and Johnston

View experience instead as a text to be used in learning- as "something to be 'read' or interpreted, possibly with great effort, and certainly with no final, definitive meaning.
Proposed a "map" of experiential learning.
Learning does not simplistically derive from experience; rather, experience and learning are mutually positioned in an interactive dynamic.
An openness and willingness to involve oneself in new experiences (concrete experience).
Observational and reflective skills so these new experiences can be viewed from a variety of perspectives (reflective observation).
Analytical abilities so integrative ideas and concepts can be created from their observations (abstract conceptualization).
Decision-making and problem-solving skills so these new ideas and problem-solving skills so these new ideas and concepts can be used in actual practice (active experimentation).

Reflective Practice
Allows one to make judgments in complex and murky situations – judgments based on experience and prior knowledge.
Thinking on you feet while it’s happening. (Schon, 1987)
Situated Cognition
Knowledge is not received and later transferred to another situation “but part of the very process of participation in the immediate situation.” (Fenwick, 2003 p. 25)
Emphasis in the learning process changes from being concerned about memory and how we process information to perception and the settings in which those perceptions are made.

Making assumptions that learning and knowing are primarily cultural phenomena moves the study of cognition into the social and political realm…
2 Key ideas in Situated Perspective
Cognitive Apprenticeship
Constructivist maintain that the learner is assumed to be a fixed identity, with transparent access to experience through rational reflection.
The Psychoanalytical perspective counters that the self is split between “conscious and unconscious desires.

Do people consist of one unified self or are they a collection of multiple selves?
The separation of the learner from the context of the experience.
Cognitive Apprenticeship
Experiential Learning (Critiques)
Anchored Instruction
Goal – is to have learners “experience what it is like to grow from novices who have only rudimentary knowlegede… to relatively sophisticated experts who have explored an environment from multiple points of view.
(York-Barr, Sommers, Ghere, & Montie, 2001)
1st – requires a deliberate slowing down to consider multiple perspectives. 2nd – maintaining an open perspective. 3rd – requires active and conscious processing of thoughts. 4th – beliefs, goals and practices must be examined.

(Wellington & Austin, 1996)
orientations toward reflective practice
The immediate
The technical
The deliberative
The dialectic
The Transpersonal
Thinking through a situation after it has happened.

Osterman and Kottkamp (2004) espoused theories (beliefs) and theories-in-use (actions) – they view the reflective practice cycle as helping practioners become aware of, and act on, the discrepancies between their beliefs and what they actually do.
4-step process that can guide reflection (York-Barr, Sommers, Ghere, & Montie, 2001)

Individuals pick an event and ask what happened.
Analyze and interpret the event and ask, why did things happen this way?
Make sense of the event and ask, what have I learned from this event?
Think about implications for action and ask, what am I going to remember to think about the next time this situation comes up?
Reflection-in-Action is triggered by surprise.
Competent and experienced professionals use r-i-a as a regular part of their practice; although they may not verbalize they are doing this.
Educators who were reflective in their practice used both reflection-on-action and reflection-in-action to build their expertise.
Machles (2004), observed that tools for learning can be
physical tools
concepts learned
… OSHA http://www.academia.edu/461116/Situated_Learning

Brandt, Farmer, and Buckmaster (1993) have created a five-phase model – See chart.
The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (CTGV)

Tara Fenwick
Experiences that provide learning are never just isolated events in time.
An experience is always what it is because of a transaction taking place between an individual and what, at the time constitutes his environment.
Two Major Principles of Continuity and Interaction
Observations About the Connection Between Life Experiences and Learning
A good but silly video on Anchored Instruction and math.
Places emphasis on teaching learners different ways of thinking about whatever they are learning, as well as any skills associated with the apprenticeship.

Authors - (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989)
let me 'do' and I understand
Young Sherlock Project

Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series
John Abbott, the president of the 21st Century Learning Initiative
Full transcript