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The Spanish Armada & The Anglo-Spanish War

This is a presentation for my second period English 4 class

Vasant Kithcart

on 30 April 2010

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Transcript of The Spanish Armada & The Anglo-Spanish War

The End By Vasant Kithcat The Anglo-Spanish War The anglo-spanish war was a conflict between the kingdoms of spain and England. The war had a great number of seperated battles. Causes The cause of this war was that Philip II of Spain had sought to defeat England for both religious and commercial reasons. The Protestant Elizabeth I of England had antagonised Roman Catholics by making attendance at the Church of England services compulsory and punishing the saying of or attendance at mass with imprisonment. Also the activities of English privateers on the Spanish Main and in the Atlantic in the years leading up to the war had injured the spanish treasury severly.
Also a lot of economic competition between the two countries had sparked tensions since Sir John Hawkins initiated English participation in the trans-Atlantic slave trade in 1562, which gained royal support. The Spanish regarded Hawkins' actions as illegal smuggling to their colonies in the West Indies, leading them to surprise and sink several ships in a slaving expedition led by Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake at San Juan de Ulúa, near Veracruz, Mexico, in September 1568. San Juan de Ulua served as the diplomatic incident that soured the Anglo-Spanish relations, which had hitherto been amicable, and in 1569 the English detained the treasure ships sent by the Spanish to supply their army in the Netherlands. Drake and Hawkins, took up privateering as a way to break the Spanish monopoly on Atlantic trade. This all made Queen Elizabeth sign the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch, agreeing to provide men, horses, and a subsidy. Philip took this to be war against his government. The war really broke out in 1585. Drake sailed for the West Indies and sacked Santa Domingo , Cartegena, Colombia and San Agustín in Florida. Philip II was very angry with the, planning to begin for an invasion of England. In April 1587 Drake burned 37 Spani sh ships in harbour at Cádiz..England joined the Eighty Years' War on the side of the Dutch Protestant United Provinces, led in revolt by William I of Orange, and against Spain. The execution of Mary I of Scotland on 28 February 1587 outraged Catholics in Europe, and her claim on the English throne passed to Philip. On 29 July 1587, he obtained Papal authority to overthrow Elizabeth, who had been excommunicated by Pope Pius V, and place whoever he chose on the throne of England.

Outbreak Spanish Armada The Spanish Armada was the most fortunate fleet, it was a fleet which the Habsburg King Philip II of SpainPhilip II of Spain ( May 21, 1527 September 13, 1598), King of Spain (r. 1556- 1598), Naples and Sicily (r. 1554- 1558), and Portugal, Philip II, the self-proclaimed leader of the Counter-Reformation, assumed the throne in 1556 with a great deal of potent used as part of an attempt to invade England in 1588. It was the largest battle of the Anglo-Spanish War, the first of several invasion attempts in the course of the war, and one of the most famous episodes in English history. The Spanish fleet was scattered by the English under Francis Drake in the battle of Gravelines and the invasion failed. English Armada The English Armada and some peple call the Counter Armada or the Drake-Norris Expedition was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). It was led by Sir Francis Drake as admiral and Sir John Norreys as general, and failed to drive home the advantage England had won upon the dispersal of the Spanish Armada in the previous year. The campaign resulted in defeat and eventually to a withdrawal with heavy losses both in lives and ships. Invasion Effects In this period of respite, the Spanish were able to refit and retool their navy, partly along English lines. The pride of the fleet were the Twelve Apostles - a dozen enormous new galleons - and the navy proved itself far more effective than it had been before 1588. A sophisticated convoy system and improved intelligence networks frustrated English privateering on the Spanish treasure fleet during the 1590s. This was best demonstrated in the failures of expeditions by Sir Martin Frobisher, John Hawkins and the Earl of Cumberland in the early part of the decade, as well as in the repulse of a squadron led by Effingham in 1591 near the Azores. It was in this battle that the Spanish captured the English flagship, the Revenge, after a courageous last stand by its captain, Sir Richard Grenville (although the Spanish did lose many vessels in a hurricane days afterward). Throughout the 1590s, the convoy escorts enabled the Spanish to ship three times as much gold and silver than in the previous decade. After that Both Drake and Hawkins died in a raiding expedition against Puerto Rico, Panama, and other targets in the Spanish Main in 1595–1596, a severe naval setback in which the English suffered unusually heavy losses in soldiers and ships. Also in 1595, a Spanish force under Don Carlos de Amesquita, which had been patrolling the channel, landed troops in Cornwall, western England. Amesquita's force seized supplies, raided and burned Penzance and surrounding villages, held a mass, and sailed away before it could be confronted. Ther was also more armadas because of england and there struggles with ireland in 1596 and 1597, the first was destroyed in a storm off northern Spain, and the second was frustrated by adverse weather as it approached the English coast undetected. King Philip II died in 1598, and his successor, Philip III, continued the war, but in a much less determined manner. There was then a final armada in 1601, expedition intended to land troops in southern Ireland to assist the rebels. The Spanish entered the town of Kinsale with 3,000 troops and were immediately besieged by the English. I For the English, the continuing, increasingly unsuccessful, war with Spain delayed English settlement in North America until the early Stuart period. This allowed Spain to consolidate its still vulnerable New World empire which was to last another two centuries. Spain had been able to effectively deny the Atlantic sea lanes to English colonial efforts until England had agreed to most Spanish conditions. However England had remained true to her Protestant revolution.

Spain remained Europe's dominant power well into the 17th century, when its long decline began decades later with defeats on land against France in the Thirty Years' War and at sea with the rise of Dutch naval supremacy. While the Armada defeat did not enable England to supplant Spain as a pre-eminent naval power, nor to engage in substantial American colonisation, it served as an inspiration to later generations, particularly during the Anglo-French naval clashes of the 18th century, when Britain finally emerged as Europe's leading sea power and colonising nation after the Seven Years' War (1756-1763).
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