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BioPlastics

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by

Hamza Ather

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of BioPlastics

Introduction

Bioplastics
Made of renewable resources
Can be degraded by micro-organisms.
Possible alternative to traditional petroleum-based plastic.
two major bioplastics, these include
hydrobiodegradable
and
oxobiodegradable
plastics.
Hydrobiodegradable

initiated by hydrolysis.
contains a small amount of petroleum-based plastic
Oxobiodegradable
initiated by oxidation, it is a process at which it is composed of petroleum-based plastic which are synthetic polymers




why bioplastics are good for the environment:
Contents
1. Introduction on Bioplastics

2. Chemistry behind Hydrobiodegradable & Oxobiodegradable plastics

3. Degradation process

4. Canadian research on bioplastics

5. Definitions

6. benefits & Challenges / Disadvantages

7. Conclusion
Evaluating Bioplastics
Degradation Process
Hydrobiodegradable process is a process that uses moisture to degrade. It is initiated by hydrolysis.

Oxobiodegradation is a two step process in which a plastic is first converted by reaction with oxygen to molecular fragments that are water-wettable. Secondly these smaller oxidized molecules are converted to carbon dioxide, biomass and water by micro-organisms.

Chemistry behind Bioplastics

Chemistry behind plastics:

Produced in a reaction called polymerization.
Most plastics undergo a process that creates monomers which join together to form polymers that can be processed into plastics.
Commonly used process
Produces pollutants












Production Capacity
Biodegradation
Benefits of Bioplastics
Challenges/ Disadvantages:

-limit to how many times a piece of plastic can be recycled in the end it could produce waste.
- in terms of energy the cost of recycling plastics can be high.
- toxic gases can be released from burning waste plastics in order to harness energy
- biodegradable plastics can break down into miniscule bits that could affect the soil.





Conclusion
Sources
Thank you for your attention !
Questions ?
Plastic blends
take less time to break down

they are renewable

Can be produced in normal industrial facilities

no harm done to the environment throughout the process.
Less fossil fuel emissions

Less dependence on oil

require less energy

Non toxic


In my opinion, I would highly recommend oxobiodegradable plastic as a suitable alternative to traditional patroleum based plastic. Oxobiodegradable plastics have many positive aspects that are associated within the process, these include the controllable degradability, no toxic effects, very affordable, reusable and recyclable and no plastic fragments after bio-degradation. These advantages play an important role in the environment and the evaluation of bioplastics. This plastic process will make a positive impact throughout the world.



Examples of estimated composting times
Combining petrochemical and bio-based plastics

Ecovio
PLA + Ecoflex
Cerfitied Compostable
Films, foams, paper coatings, injection moldings...
These pictures illustrate the degradation process of bioplastics.
Aerobic biodegradation
:

C(polymer) + O2 CO2+ H2O + C (residue) + C(biomass)


Anaerobic biodegradation:

C(polymer) CO2+ CH4+ H2O + C (residue) + C(biomass)



Complete biodegradation occurs when no residue remains
Applications of biodegradable plastics

Consumer products
Horticulture & agriculture
Technical applications
Catering
Bottles
Other packaging

Dictionary of Environmental Science and Technology.
Fourth edition. Andrew Porteous. Emeritus Professor of Environmental Engineering, The Open University, UK. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
.

BASF, the chemical company. Plastics Flexible. 2011. 27 November 2013. <http://www.packaging.basf.com/p02/Packaging/en_GB/content/products/plastics_flexible>

Biosphere. Biodegradable Plastic Additive. 27 November 2013.
<http://www.biosphereplastic.com/>

Christian Garaffa and Rhodes Yepsen. Managing Compostable Bags At Anaerobic Digestion Plants. BioCycle, 2012. 14 December 2013. <http://www.biocycle.net/2012/09/18/managing-compostable-bags-at-anaerobic-digestion-plants/ >

Degradable polymer. 27. November 2013.
<http://www.biodegrade.net/products.html>

European Bioplastics. Bioplastics. 25 November 2013.
<http://en.european-bioplastics.org/bioplastics/ >


The Truth About Biodegradable Plastic. 25 November 2013.
<http://www.theinnovationdiaries.com/998/the-truth-about-biodegradable-plastic/>




Sources

Standards:

ASTM D6002-96(2002)e1. Standard Guide for Assessing the Compostability of Environmentally Degradable Plastics. American Society for Testing and Materials, 2011. <http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6002.htm>

EN 13432:2000.Requirements for packaging recoverable through composting and biodegradation. European Standardization Committee, 2000. <http://www.cen.eu/cen/pages/default.aspx>

ISO 14855-2:2007. Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions. International Standards Organization, 2010.
<http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=40617>
Bioplastics generate no waste,
produce no pollutants.
Many manufacturers claim that making them does not use up fossil fuels.
they do not pose a risk to the environment, they are recyclable and renewable.
Hydrobiodegradable
produced by natural polymers such as starch
uses an additive that breaks down when exposed to water.
The main monomer that makes up a starch molecule is glucose.
Oxobiodegradable
composed of petroleum based plastics which are synthetic polymers.
polyethylene has a monomer of ethylene.
Definitions:
Degradable.
Biodegradable.
Compostable plastic.

By: Hamza Ather
Research
-Canada has been trying to introduce biodegradable plastics to the Canadian markets. Lots of research has been done on the nature of biodegradable plastics.
Lots of research has been done to find the most convenient way to produce these types of plastics and decrease the cost.
These researches have been mostly done by universities such us McGill and the university of Alberta.
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