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Transcript of Ancient Greece
There was no central government in Ancient Greece. In fact, Greece was not even one country. Instead the people lived in city-states. Each city-state was independent from the other, they had their own laws, coinage and way of doing things. However, they all spoke the same Greek language, believed in the same God's and shared a common history. In the various city-states there where three main forms of government. Being ruled by a king, which is called a monarchy. Being ruled by a group of people, called oligarchy. Finally, being ruled by many, which is called a democracy. There was also the time between 600 B.C. and 500 B.C where some Greek city-states where ruled by tyrants. Which is when as man steps up to rule over others, but does not have a legal reason to rule.
Education in most Ancient Greek cities was for the sole purpose of producing good citizens. All citizens, which where only the men, children, women and slaves where not considered citizens, where trained to be soldiers. They where also trained in music, art, literature, and politics. In Athens, boys where taught at home until six years of age, then they went to a school. There they learned to read and write. They where also taught how to play a musical instrument, they learned poetry, debate and persuasive speech. Science and Math where also taught. After graduating basic schooling at twenty years of age, boys then went to military school. The girls did not go to school, instead, their mothers taught them at home. If their mothers could read or write, they where taught that, but mostly they where taught how to cook and take care of a family.
Daily life in Ancient Greece was extremely different for men compared to women. In Athens, men where expected to take an active part in daily society. While Women where expected to be privet and stay at home, only allowed to go out in their personal courtyards. They where only suppose to be wives and mothers. These personal courtyards also had a well in them for water, an alter to worship their God's, and was a place where children could play. Greeks mostly ate bread dipped in wine, cheeses, fish, olives, and vegetables. Meat, like pork or beef, was only eaten on rare occasions such as festivals. Watered down wine was the main drink of the Ancient Greeks. They wore a tunic called a chitin for daily clothing. The men had jobs like, being a farmer, a fisherman, a soldier, a teacher, a government worker, or a craftsman. While women manned their household. While the boys went to school, and the girls stayed at home with their mothers, either being taught or doing housework as well.
Greek life was mostly dominated by religion. Because of this, many Greek temples where big, bold and beautiful. With these temples came columns, which where equally as bold and beautiful as the temples surrounding them. The Greeks had three architectural designs, which they called orders. Those orders where: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.
Athens vs Sparta
The Ancient Greece timeline began in 6000 B.C with the Neolithic time period.Until 2900 B.C., when the Early Bronze age began. Both periods ended in 2000 B.C. and then began the Minoean period, which ended in 1400 B.C. Mycenaean started in 1600 B.C. and ended in 1100 B.C. After that began the Dark Ages, which ended in 750 B.C., leading into the Archaic age. The Archaic age ended in 500 B.C.. Then began the Classical age. Which ended in 336 B.C. Finally, the Hellinistic age began, and ended in 146 B.C.
Ancient Greece Map
Ancient Greek Flag
The dictionary definition of a monarchy is, "A state or nation in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in a monarch.", as well as, "supreme power or sovereignty held by a single person." The late Bronze Age, the Mycenean period, was the time in Ancient Greece where most every city-state was a monarchy. The biggest example of this is in Sparta. They where, however, ruled by two kings. Mostly brothers or cousins, this also gave a kind of checks and balances to the Spartan government. Also, when they where at war, one king could stay and rule and the other would go off to war. They also had a system called Appella or Demos, which is a people’s assembly. Held monthly. To join in the assembly you had to be at least 30 year old, male, and a Greek citizen. The purpose for this assembly was so the citizens could have a voice.
The dictionary definition's for an oligarchy are, "a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.", "a state or organization so ruled.", and "the persons or class so ruling." In the Archaic Age (750-500 B.C.) was the time when most Greek city-states where oligarchies. The richest of the city-states divided the government between them. These men considered themselves the best among the Greek's. However, fighting between these men led to tyrannies, where one man would rise up above the others and take over ruling. They normally won this power by getting the favor of the poor. These tyrants would normally run their governments like monarchies.
The dictionary definition's of democracy are, "government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.", "a state of society characterized by formal equality of rights and privileges.", "political or social equality; democratic spirit.", and "the common people of a community as distinguished from any privileged class; the common people with respect to their political power.". In 510 B.C., while monarchies, oligarchies and tyrannies where still preferred by come city-states, Democracy flourished in parts of Greece. The first democracy in Greece was Athens. The word essentially means, people (demos) power (kratos). However, in Greece this was not consistently true. In Athens only land owners and citizens could participate. Women and slaves where not permitted, as well as Greeks from other city-states. The democracy in Athens continued until it was conquered by Sparta.
Ancient Greece Education
However, education in Sparta was very different. Their education was solely military based. The purpose for their schooling was to have powerful warriors for the battlefield. Military school was considered more important than learning to read or write, though they also learned those skills. In military school the boys where not treated well. They could be beaten and starved. They where taught to steal and lie, skills that could keep them safe. The whole educational system in Sparta was focused on teaching about war and battle. Even Spartan girls where taught how to be warriors. However, their school was less brutal. This was because Spartans believed that strong women produced strong babies.
The Doric style was sturdy and the tops of them where plain. Columns where normally placed close together and without bases. Their shafts had concave curves that they called flutes, the capitals where a plain rounded sections at the bottom of the structure know as echinus. The square top was called an abacus. An entabalture has a frieze with vertical channels that has spaces between them called metopes which often had sculptures or an ornament in them.The best known example of this order is the Parthenon.
The Ionic style was thinner and considered more elegant. They where used for more indoor decoration, as well as, smaller buildings. The Greeks called it the Ionic order because it was created on the Ionian Islands in the 6th century B.C. Also, the Roman historian, Vitruvius, often compared them to the female form. The Ionic order is most known for being used in a small temple to Athena Nike. Located at the Athens Acropolis.
The Corinthian order was used the least by the Greeks. It is named after the city-state Corinth, and is said to have been created by the sculptor Callimachus at teh end of the 5th century B.C. The oldest and most iconic uses of this order is in the Apollo Epicurius, which resides in Bassae.
Temple of Apollo Epicurius
There where many famous people who lived during the time of Ancient Greece, Greece was filled with philosophers, play writes, poets, historians and great leaders. Such as the play write Aeschylus, whom is considered the father of tragedy. As well as, Homer, one of the great Greek poets. There was also, Hippocrates, a medical scientist of his time, called the Father of Western Medicine. Then there are Alexander the Great and Cleisthenes, both great leaders from Ancient Greece. Alexander for his continuous win on the ancient battle field, and Celisthenes for his work on the constitution that made decocracy work.
Athens and Sparta where almost different in every way. Athens was a place where tinkers lived, the birthplace of many ideas that are still used in modern society. They studied subjects such as science, philosophy, and history. They valued arts, architecture, and literature as high priorities. However, their women and slaves where not valued. Athens was also a democratic society. Sparta was a very military based society. Most of the time run by two kings they where an oligarchy. They expected all of their citizens to be healthy and fighting ready. Even Spartan women where required to learn to fight. The vast differences between Athens and Sparta eventually lead to war. between the two cities. It was called the Peloponnesian War and lasted from 431 to 404 B.C. Sparta and Athens gathered their allies and fought on and off for decades because no single city-state was strong enough to conquer the others
Plato was born in 428 B.C. He is an Ancient Greek philosopher, who was a student of Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle. In his writing he studied justice, beauty and equality. They contained discussions in aesthetics, political philosophy, theology, cosmology, epistemology and the philosophy of language. He also founded the Academy of Athens, which was one of the first institutes of higher learning in the Western world. His over all work included a large spectrum of topics, including; mathematics, science and nature, morals and political theory.
Socrates life is a mystery, the only knowledge we have of him is what is students told of him, including Plato. However, we do know that he was a Greek philosopher, and that he is considered the main source of Western thought. His "Socratic method," is said to have laid the groundwork for Western systems of logic and philosophy. Socrates believed that "philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society". He even attempted to establish an ethical system based on human reason rather than theological doctrine. He believed that "ultimate wisdom comes from knowing oneself". Socrates also served in the armored infantry (known as the hoplite) with a shield, a long spear and a face mask. He served in three military compaigns, at Delium, Amphipolis, and Potidaea. He saved the life of popular general Alcibiades. Socrates was know for his courage in battles and his fearlessness
Aristotle was born circa 384 B.C, and at seventeen he enrolled in Plato's academy. In 338, he began his tutoring of Alexander the Great. The year of 335 B.C. Aristotle began his own school, the Lyceum, which resided in Athens. Aristotle was mainly a philosopher, though he was considered a scientist of his time. It is estimated that he wrote 200 works, most in the form of notes and manuscript drafts. Many consist of dialogues, records of scientific observations and systematic works. However, only 31 are still in circulation today. hi major locial writing where;
. These discussed his system of reasoning and developings for arguments.
are some of Aristotle’s major treatises. They are on the behavior and judgment that constitute “good living.” It is said that his works "lay the foundation of more than seven centuries of philosophy."
Pericles was born in 495 B.C., and in 461 assumed the rule of Athens. During his rule of Athens he built the Acropolis and Parthenon. He also led Athens' recapture of Delphi, the siege on Samos and the invasion of Megara. During his time in politics Pericles supported major reform of the Athenian constitution and was outspoken about his hostility towards Sparta. To many historians the exile of previous leader of Athens, Cimon, and Pericles rise to rule is considered the start of democracy in Ancient Greece.
There where six main wars of Ancients Greece, the Ionian Revolt, the First Persian War, the Peloponnesian War, the Archidamian War, the Sicilian war and the Ionian or Decelean War. The Ionian Revolt could also be considered the start of the First Persian War, and also called th Greco-Persian Wars. It lasted for about half a decade from 499 B.C. to 488 B.C. In 539 BC Cyrus The Great ruled Persia and most of West Asia. He was a cruel ruler and he was capturing cities and in those citys where citizens called, Ionians. His son, Cambyses, supported him, and he captured Egypt and some Greek islands between Anatolia and Greece, the most important one being the island of Samos. His son, Darius, later attacked the Scythians, however, he lost. He along with his army returned back to Persia. The Persians then last the attack on Naxos. The Greek city-states decided to revolt because of this, they no longer saw Persia as a powerful threat. This is known as the Ionian revolt. However, the Ionians were defeated in the Battle of Lade in 494 BC. After the revolt, Darius decided to expand his empire's territories. This was the First Persian War, they captured city after city. Until, the Battle of Marathon, which resulted in Persia's defeat. After that the Athenians where seen as strong, and the Persians weak. Next came the Peloponnesian War, which was divided into three parts, the Archidamian War, the Sicilian war and the Ionian/Decelean War. After the war's the 'Thirty Tyrants' ruled Athens for a small period of time. However, Democracy was reinitiated in 403 BC. Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian War was seen as somewhat diluted, because of their defeat in Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC. Later on when Philip II of Macedon conquered all of Greece, Sparta's empire and power was diminished and ultimately destroyed.
Ancient Greek philosophy studies the philosophical activities and inquiries of the Greco-Roman thinkers. It covers from the 6th century B.C. to the 6th century A.D. It begins with the theoretical novelty the early Presocratic thinkers such as Thales and Anaximander and ends to the late Neoplatonic and Aristotelian speakers such as Simplicius and Philoponus. Philosophers in Ancient Greek were mainly pagans and because of this their philosophical activities were not totally welcomed by the rising Christianity. The end of what is considered Ancient Greek philosophy is normally marked by the closing of the Platonic Academy of Athens. Only a small bit of Ancient Greek philosophical writings have made it to modern day. Ancient Greek philosophy is usually divided up in to four divisions, the Presocratic Period (6th – 5th century BC), the Classical Period (4th century BC), the Hellenistic Period (late 4th – 1st century BC), and the Imperial Period (1st BC – 6th century AD).
Theater in Ancient Greece began with festivals for their Gods. Athens was the main place for the theater. In the early Greek festivals the actors, the directors, and the dramatists were all the same person. Later there where only allowed to have three actors in each play. Music was often played while the chorus' delivered its lines. Tragedy, comedy, and satyr plays were the main theatrical forms. Theaters where called a theatron. The theaters were large, open-air structures constructed on the slopes of hills. They consisted of three main elements: the orchestra, the scene, and the audience. All actors where men and the set was normally a rectangular area with a backstage. Music in Greece was a big part of their culture. They thought music was a way of honoring the Gods, and that it made them more civilized. We have no idea how Greek music actually sounded, however we know that they made music with pipes, and lyres, and drums, and cymbals.
The greek alphabet is over twenty-five hundred years old, and is still in use today. They took much of their alphabets from the Phoenician alphabet, however they added a few new lettersThe Greek alphabet was the first one to introduce vowels. The first two letters of the Greek alphabet are alpha and beta, which is how we got the word alphabet. There are twenty-four letters in the whole of the Greek alphabet. Greek letters are also used in science and math. They are usually used for constants, variables, and functions. The original Greek alphabet did not have lowercase or uppercase letters. It is estimated that 30 percent of the English alphabet today is derived from the Greek alphabet.
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