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WTO round of negotiations achievements and failure

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Marie Yevdokimova

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of WTO round of negotiations achievements and failure

WTO round of negotiations
achievements and failure


Achivements vs Failures
2 EXAMPLES
DOHA ROUND
Process and Impass
WTO
WTO SUCCESS
NON - trade barriers;
Encouraged sustainable and trade development;
A single set of rules applying to all members;
Governments take a more balanced view of trade policy;
Supervises 95% of the world trade;
NON-discrimination between countries.
WTO FAILURES AND CRITICS
Rich countries are able to maintain high import duties and quotas in certain products, blocking imports from developing countries ;
Anti-dumping measures allowed against developing countries;
High protection of agriculture in developed countries while developing ones are pressed to open their market;
Developing countries do not have the capacity to follow the negotiations;
Seeking to privatize essential public services such as education, health care, energy and water;
Free trade is not working for the majority of the world. WTO rules have hastened these trends by opening up countries to foreign investment and making it easier for production to go where the labor is cheapest and most easily exploited and environmental costs are low.;
WTO takes too long to arbitrate and settle disputes - it can take over five years from the initial receipt of a complaint from one member to the final panel ruling.
Conclusion
The WTO trumps all other international agreements.The WTO must be scaled back so that the human rights, environmental, labor and other multilaterally agreed public interest standards already enshrined in various international treaties can serve as a floor of conduct for corporations seeking the benefits of global trade rules.
Uruguay round brief introduction
The Uruguay Round
The Uruguay Round
Setbacks
Disagreement over the special safeguard mechanism (SSM)

Main negotiating parties refused to budge

Market Access Disputes

Agricultural subsidies
Corresponding Impacts

Rapid development of FTA and RTA
MFN LFN relatively
Spaghetti bowl effect
Loss of huge potential benefits
The importance of reopening negotiations
& the key to the success
CASE 1
What China achieved after joined WTO?

CASE 2
India, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand vs US
This was the largest trade negotiation at the time that started in 1986, involving 123 countries covering basically every issue ranging from genes of white rice to AIDS treatment.
Concessions on market access for tropical products
Trade policies review mechanism adopted
Streamlined the dispute settlement system

Early gains
Achievements
In 1992 the US and EU solved most of their disagreements in agriculture in what was known as the Blair House Accord
By 1993 every issue had been resolved
In 1994 a deal was signed by most ministers in Morocco
Services, intellectual property and creation of WHO where achieved
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the most powerful legislative and judicial body in the world.
By promoting the free trade agenda of multinational corporations above the interests of local communities, working families, and the environment, the WTO has systematically undermined democracy around the world.
The WTO's authority even eclipses national governments.
The WTO was born out of negotiations, and everything the WTO does is the result of negotiations.
The Uruguay Round
WTO
Foreign direct investment
Import and export
WTO allows us to have a legal and equal international trade market
State foreign exchange reserves
China vs European Commission
GDP
2001 : 1,32 trillion
2011 : 7,3 trillion
2001 : 0.24 trillion
2011 : 3.18 trillion
2001 : 509.7 billion
2011 : 3.64 trillion
2001: 47 billion
2011: 166 billion
November 9th 2007, the European Commission initiated an anti-dumping probe into Chinese made screws and bolts.
January 2009, the EC imposed anti-dumping duties between 26.5% and 85%, on all non-steel fasteners from China for a period of five years.
July 31 2009, China requested consultations at the dispute settlement body of the WTO with the European Commission (EC) regarding definitive anti-dumping duties.
On Oct. 23 2009, the WTO set up an expert panel to hear both sides of the case.
On December 3, 2010 the WTO released a verdict that supported China’s position, stating that a separate tax rate for fastener anti-dumping measures are discriminatory and violate global commerce rules.
On July 15, 2011, the WTO issued a final ruling, concluding that section 5, Article 9 of the EU Anti-dumping Law against China was in violation of WTO rules. The panel has found that the EU discriminates against Chinese exporters compared to exporters from other countries.

Following the WTO ruling, in March 2012 the EU announced it would reexamine 52 anti-dumping measures against products from China.


European Commission
The imports cause material damage to domestic firms.
China:
The EC could not prove injury because Chinese fasteners, most of which are of the cheap, low-end variety, do not compete with high-end European-made fasteners used in the auto and aviation industry.
The duties are in violation of international trade laws and the EC must “promptly withdraw rules and measures that have been imposed, and cease the disturbance to Sino-EC trade and impairment of China's interests.”
In 1989, USA enacted Section 609 of Public Law which encouraged bilateral and multilateral negotiations for the protection and conservation of sea turtles with governments engaged in commercial fishing operations likely to have a negative impact on sea turtles.
In 1996, Revised Guidelines to S. 609 were passed which stipulated that all shipments of shrimp and shrimp products into USA were to be accompanied by a declaration attesting that the shrimp had been harvested “either under conditions that do not adversely affect turtles or in waters subject to the jurisdiction of a certified nation.
In October 1996, the above embargo was extended to apply to all shrimp and shrimp products harvested in the wild by citizens or vessels of nations which had not been certified.

Malaysia and Thailand appealed to WTO on 9 Jan 1997
Pakistan on 30 Jan 1997.

Panel conclusion
Pakistan on 30 Jan 1997.
India on 25 Feb 1997.
The issue in dispute was not the urgency of
protection of sea turtles, or the desirability or necessity of the environmental objectives of the US policy on sea turtle conservation. Members are free to set their own environmental objectives but they are bound to interpret those objectives in such a way that is consistent with their WTO obligations, not depriving the WTO Agreement of its object and purpose.

Disagreements
What do YOU think about WTO
Failure to agree on agricultural sector let to extension of the talks beyond 1990

Disagreements on join agriculture: services, market access and antidoping rule

Disagreements on the formation of a new institution
Full transcript