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ENG 262: English Literature II

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Leigh Ann Rhea

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of ENG 262: English Literature II

ENG 262: English Literature II
William Blake
The Doors
• “a sensationally transgressive rock band of the 1960s”
• The band’s name comes from Blake’s Marriage of Heaven and Hell (48)
Damrosch, David, and Kevin J. H. Dettmar. Masters of British Literature. Vol. B. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. Print.
When You’re Strange
• 2009 documentary about the 1960s rock band The Doors
• Written and directed by Tom DiCillo, and narrated by Johnny Depp
• B+ review: focuses on the music and the culture it created, including previously unseen concert video, but does not include interviews
• Traces Jim Morrison’s descent from the “leaping and whirling Dionysian prince in dark curls, conch belt, and leather pants” into alcoholism
Gleiberman, Owen. "When You're Strange." Entertainment Weekly 1098 (2010): 56. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.

Ray Manzarek
• Keyboardist for The Doors
• Died May 20, 2013
• Without a bass guitarist, the band relied on Manzarek’s skills to fill in the bass line.
• Sound engineer Bruce Botnick described Manzarek as the band’s conductor, pointing out that concert footage shows the keyboardist nearly standing up at the end of every song as if to tell the others when the song ended
• In a 1974 interview, Manzarek said, “You've got to know when to play, how much to play and when to get out.”
Fricke, David. "Ray Manzarek of The Doors." Rolling Stone 1185 (2013): 26. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Aug. 2013.

Sir Humphry Davy
• Chemist (and writer)
• His creative writings are scattered throughout his Memoirs of Sir Humphry Davy, published after his death by his brother (275)
• The influence of Wordsworth and Coleridge is evident in his “loose forms of descriptive verse-diary” (275-76).
• He climbed Hlevellyn with Wordsworth, Southey, and Walter Scott during the summer of 1805.
• They discussed Coleridge’s absence and lack of communication. Davy wrote Coleridge a letter, encouraging him to return and become a poetry lecturer at the Royal Institution (295).
Holmes, Richard. The Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science. New York: Pantheon, 2008. Print.
Dove Cottage
• Home of Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy from 1799-1813
• In the Lake District, specifically the Grasmere valley (184)
Damrosch, David, and Kevin J. H. Dettmar. Masters of British Literature. Vol. B. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. Print.
Benjamin Robert Haydon
• Painter and diarist who hosted a dinner party in December 1817
• The dinner party became known as the “Immortal Dinner.”
• Holmes traces the perceived division between Romanticism and science to this dinner.
• Wordsworth was one of the dinner guests (318).
• The conversation at the dinner became “increasingly rowdy,” particularly while discussing Haydon’s painting Christ’s Entry into Jerusalem. This discussion led to a debate about Reason and Imagination (319).
Holmes, Richard. The Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science. New York: Pantheon, 2008. Print.
Napoleon I
• William Wordsworth and Annette Vallon, a Frenchwoman with whom he had a child named Caroline, despised Napoleon I (47).
• Napoleon’s escape from exile delayed the marriage of Wordsworth’s daughter Caroline. The wedding occurred following Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo (237).
• Images of Revolutionary France and Napoleon as a tyrant invigorated Wordsworth’s poetry, a problem once those entities ceased to exist as such (257).
Mahoney, John L. William Wordsworth, The Poetic Life. Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press, 1997. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 27 Aug. 2013.
Josephine de Beauharnais
• Born on June 23, 1763
• She was given the name Marie-Joseph-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie.
• Originally went by the name Rose
• She moved to France to wed Alexandre de Beauharnais, the son of the governor of Martinique.
• In 1795 during the French Revolution, Rose and her husband Alexander were arrested and Alexandre was executed. She learned of his death by reading the list of executions in a Paris newspaper.
• While living in Paris, Rose went through a provocative stage. During this time she met the future emperor of France, Napoleon Bonaparte.
• Napoleon was the first to call her Josephine and it became the name she went by for the remainder of her life.
• They met in 1795 and married in March of 1796. She was eight years his senior.
• In 1804 Josephine was crowned Empress of France; their marriage ended shortly after.
• Died in 1814
Calvendish, Richard. “Josephine de Beauharnais born in Martinique.”
History Today
June 2013: 8. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 5 Sept. 2013.
Saint Helena
• Saint Helena is a British territory that is located between South America and Africa; it has a tropical climate that is slightly windy.
• Today the island has no airport; it takes two weeks to travel there taking the RMS St. Helena from a port in Whales (XIV).
• The only natural resources that derive from the island are fish and lobster.
• Napoleon Bonaparte was sent to exile there on October 15, 1815 and spent his time there until the day he died on May 5, 1821 (XV).
• Napoleon spent most of his time on the island as a tenant in Longwood, which has been described as “an island within and island.”
Kauffmann, Jean-Paul, and P. A. Clancy.
Black Room At Longwood : Napoleon's Exile On Saint-Helena: Four Walls Eight Windows
, 1999. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 6 Sept. 2013.
"Central Intelligence Agency."
The World Factbook
. N.p., 31 July 2013. Web. 6 Sept. 2013.
“The Immortal Dinner”
• A book about a dinner party that was hosted by Benjamin Robert Haydon on December 28, 1817.
• The purpose of Haydon’s dinner was to flaunt his new painting Christ’s Entry into Jerusalem.
• The dinner party included many of London’s elite poets and scientists who enlightened the era.
• The book captures the Romantic period and how it was influenced artistically and politically.
Carrigan Jr., Henry L. "The Immortal Dinner (Book)."
Library Journal
127.15 (2002): 62. Academic Search Premier. Web. 6 Sept. 2013.


• Painter
• John Opie painted Mary Wollstonecraft while she was pregnant with her second child in 1797 (144).
• Mary Wollstonecraft’s portrait can be viewed at the National Portrait Gallery in London.
Damrosch, David, and Kevin J.H. Dettmar. Masters of British Literature. Vol. B. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. Print.
"Mary Wollstonecraft." National Portrait Gallery. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2013.

John Opie
• Writer and daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin.
• Mary and Percy Bysshe Shelley eloped in 1814, and married in 1816 after Shelley’s former wife died.
• While traveling in the Switzerland Alps with her husband and Lord Byron, Mary wrote her most famous novel
on behalf of Lord Byron’s request that each of them should “write a ghost story”.
• After the death of her children and husband, Mary threw herself into her work.
• She went on to publish some of her late husband’s work and even started working on his biography, but before she could finish she died.
"Shelley, Mary (Wollstonecraft Godwin) (1797 - 1851)."
The Penguin Biographical Dictionary of Women
. London: Penguin, 1998. Credo Reference. Web. 05 Sept. 2013.
Mary Shelley
• Publisher, bookseller, and writer
• Mary wrote many critiques in Johnson’s piece of
Analytical Review
• Mary’s work entitled
Thoughts on the Education of Daughters
, published by Johnson in 1787, gave her the fame she needed to make it as a writer (26).
• Even though Johnson was Mary’s publisher, he was one of the few people she could open up to and feel comfortable talking to (9).
• After the fall of Bastille, Johnson and Wollstonecraft planned to travel to Paris to see the kind of impact her book,
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
, had on the French people. Due to unfortunate events in France they were forbidden from coming (64).
Johnson, Claudia L.
The Cambridge Companion To Mary Wollstonecraft
. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 5 Sept. 2013.
Joseph Johnson
Richard Price
Introduced to Mary Wollstonecraft in 1784
Wollstonecraft wrote
Vindication on the Rights of Men
in response to an attack on Rev Price
Introduced Price to her publisher, who then published Price's writing
Source: O'Connor, J.J., and E F Robertson. "Richard Price." . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sep 2013.
• 1848 speech about equal rights for women
• Speech delivered by Elizabeth Cady Stanton at a convention in Seneca Falls, New York
• Mrs. Stanton’s movement for women’s rights gave a powerful stand and paved the way for future women’s rights activist such as Susan B. Anthony and Coretta Scott King.
• In her speech, Elizabeth Stanton stated, “There should not be a different code of morals for men and women.”
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. “The Declaration of Sentiments” Speech.
The Declaration of Sentiments
. New York. 1848. Infoplease. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
, which is widely regarded as one of the earliest feminist writings.
Is considered one of the founders of the Feminism and Women's Rights            
Damrosch, David, Kevin J. H. Dettmar, et al,
Masters Of British Literature; The Romantics and their Contemporaries, The Victorian Age, and The Twentieth Century
. Volume B. Vol. B. New York: Pearson, 2008. 144. Print.
Critical Condition: Feminism at the Turn of the Century
• 2000 contemporary about feminism and concerns surrounding women
• Written by Susan Gubar
• Gubar refers to Wordsworth’s “The Prelude” as women begin bought by power
• Gubar discusses the struggle for women in race, gender, religion, and social caste
• Gubar also authored: “Racechanges: White skin, Black Face in American Culture”
Gubar, Susan.
Critical Condition: Feminism at the Turn of the Century
. New York: Columbia University, 2000. EBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 15 Sept. 2013.

The Last Man
• 1826 science fiction novel about future world at the end of the 21st century
• Written by Mary Shelley
• Laments the loss of Shelley’s friends
• Questions Romantic political ideas
Shelley, Mary. The Last Man. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Web.

The Bloomsbury Group
The Bloomsbury Club or Group was founded in March of 1905 Active members included: Leonard and Virginia (Stephen) Woolf, Vanessa (Stephen) Bell (her sister) and Clive Bell (Vanessa’s husband); Adrian Stephen (their brother), Lytton Strachey, James and Marjorie Strachey, E.M. Forster, David Garnett, Desmond and Molly MacCarthy, and Roger Fry. The meetings were informal, friendly get-togethers to discuss literature, painting, and life in general. However, to an outsider from their era, the group would have been quite bizarre. Bloomsbury was very sexually liberal. At the time, men and women discussing sexuality together was simply not done. Furthermore, the group often discussed homosexuality which was at the time, a serious social taboo.(128) "This freedom of language was revolutionary and, by taking away the shock value, by looking at homosexuality as a personal and not a social matter, Bloomsbury denied the dangers of perversion and the need to isolate homosexuals" (128).
Tamagne, Florence.
A History Of Homosexuality In Europe : Berlin, London, Paris, 1919-1939
, Volume I & II. New York, N.Y.: Algora, 2006. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 11 Sept. 2013.
Vita Sackville-West
Vita Sackville-West, 1892-1962, was an accomplished poet and novelist, but she is remembered less for her work than for the life she lived.(280) Particularly the love life she led. “Virginia Woolf was already over forty, and had been married to Leonard Woolf since 1913 when she met Vita for the first time.”(183) The two women had a strong emotional relationship, but Vita, fearing for Virginia's mental state, tried to avoid a physical relationship. “Vita began to seduce other women again, but she continued to see and to love Woolf” (183).
Janik, Vicki K., Del Ivan Janik, and Emmanuel S. Nelson.
Modern British Women Writers : An A-To-Z Guide
. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 11 Sept. 2013.
Tamagne, Florence.
A History Of Homosexuality In Europe : Berlin, London, Paris, 1919-1939
, Volume I & II. New York, N.Y.: Algora, 2006. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 11 Sept. 2013.
The Great War
The Great War, or World War I, troubled all of Europe. The United Kingdom allied with the French and Russians took on Germany and Austria-Hungary. Whether on the battle fields or on the home front, the destruction and despair of the war could be felt. “Virginia Woolf was a civilian during the Great War. What history called the "real" experience of war was not afforded her.”(10) “In her wartime writings is a movement toward understanding that the sense of immunity from effects of the war—shared by much of the civilian population—was an illusion” (10).
Levenback, Karen L.
Virginia Woolf And The Great War
. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1999. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 11 Sept. 2013.
Violet Trefusis
• daughter of the last mistress of Edward VII
• had an affair with a married Vita from 1918 – 1921
• married a man during, who was fully aware of the affair
• “mythologized Vita into her bold, free gypsy lover” (73)
• Vita ultimately chose to return to her husband
Dunlap, Barbara J. "Violet To Vita: The Letters Of Violet Trefusis To Vita Sackville-West, 1910-21/Echo (Book)."
Library Journal
115.20 (1990): 73. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Sept. 2013.
Portrait of a Marriage: Vita Sackville-West and Harold Nicolson
• biography of Vita, compiled from her journals and letters
• written by her son, Nigel Nicolson, in 1973
• told in five parts, two autobiographical sections by Vita and three explanations/extensions by Nigel
• explains her open, but long-lasting marriage to Harold, with their various lovers
Nicolson, Nigel.
Portrait of a Marriage: Vita Sackville-West and Harold Nicolson
. New York: Atheneum, 1973. Open Library. Web. 20 Sept. 2013.
Music and The Great War
• Article by F.A. Hadland published in April 1916
• About the effect of the Great War on music in England
• English music strove to become more original and let go of the German influence
"While The First World War Raged, In April 1916 The Strad Looked Ahead To The Ascendancy Of British Music." Strad 121.1441 (2010): 31. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Sept. 2013.
Samuel Taylor

Iron Maiden
• British heavy metal band who's fifth studio album, Powerslave, features a song titled “Rime of the Ancient Mariner”.
• Song was written by the band's guitarist, Steve Harris
• Despite its length, the song was written in a very short amount of time and was based on the 1815 gloss version.
• The song directly quotes the line “Water, water, every where,/ And all the boards did shrink;/ Water, water, every where,/ Nor any drop to drink.”
Iron Maiden: Live after Death. Dir. James Yukich. Perf. Iron Maiden. EMI, 2008. DVD.
U.S. Coast Guard
• Ancient Albatross Award
• Created in 1965 and initiated in 1966
• “This award is presented to the Coast Guard aviator on active duty holding the earliest designation in recognition of a clear defiance of the private realm of the Albatross and all its sea-bird kin while in pursuit of time-honored Coast Guard duties.”
• Was named for the Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner and the HU-16 Albatross aircraft in use at the time.
Nora L. Chidlow. “The Bird That Continues to Fly: A History of the Ancient Albatross Award”. U.S. Coast Guard Historian's Office. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.
• Founded alongside Robert Southey
• “ideal democratic community...in Pennsylvania, to be named “Pantisocracy”,or equal rule by all.”
• Project failed due to a dispute over having servants or not.
• Through this, Coleridge became engaged to Sara Fricker, Southey's fiancee's sister.
Damrosch, David, and Dettmar, Kevin J. H.
Masters of British Literature
. New York: Pearson-Longman. 2008. Print.

Edgar Allan Poe
• Poe’s family had a history with substance dependence- his father and older brother were alcoholics (Iszáj 1615).
• He was a user of laudanum, or opium.
• His laudanum and alcohol abuse worsened after wife's death in 1847. He was sober before mysterious death in 1849 or 1850 (1615).
• He is known for his short stories and poems, such as "The Raven" and considered “a pioneer in the genre of science fiction” (Iszáj 1616).
Iszáj, Fruzsina, and Zsolt Demetrovics. "Balancing Between Sensitization And Repression: The Role Of Opium In The Life And Art Of Edgar Allan Poe And Samuel Taylor Coleridge."
Substance Use & Misuse
46.13 (2011): 1613-1618. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2013.
• Despite failing to move pantisocracy to Wales, Robert Southey was fascinated with Native America for its extreme difference to Britain.
• Southey, and other poets, “praised the oral poetry of the Indians” (Fulford 128).
• British writers regarded Native American Indians as the “last living oral culture” and began to write about them, as another figure depicted in the canon of literature. (Fulford 130).
Fulford, Tim.
Romantic Indians : Native Americans, British Literature, And Transatlantic Culture 1756-1830
. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 25 Sept. 2013.
American Indians
Alexander Hamilton
• One of the founding fathers, he was the first Secretary of the Treasury.
• Established the economic system for the United States of America amongst other achievements in our nation’s history.
• Founded the U.S. Coast Guard in 1790 through Congress, to secure “coastal waters” from ships trying to enter the United States without approval. (140)
Murray, Joseph A.
Alexander Hamilton : America's Forgotten Founder
. New York: Algora Pub, 2007. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
• The idea that psychoactive substances are linked to creativity goes beyond the writers themselves to the way in which they produced their work. From the Romantic poets of the 18th century to the Beat Generation of the mid-20th century, drugs have long been reputed to be central to the literary process.
• In Sadie Plant’s words, “poets were enchanted by the possibility that such poetry could spring from the opiated edge of waking life.” Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is another well-known story to have emerged in a similar way
Day, Ed, and Iain Smith. “Literary and Biographical Perspectives on Substance Use.”
Advances in Psychiatric Treatment
9 (2003): 62-68. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
Substance Abuse Among Writers
• Near Sayre, Pa., The Chemung valley was the scene of fighting in the Revolutionary War; the battle of Newtown occurred in 1779 near the site of Elmira.
• The Susquehanna River is the longest, non-commercially navigable river in the country.
• The largest contributor of freshwater to the Chesapeake Bay.
“The Susquehanna River.”
Susquehanna River Valley: Every Turn a Treasure
. Susquehanna River Valley Visitors Bureau, 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
Susquehanna River
• The Iron Maiden was introduced in Germany. Even though it is commonly believed that it was used in the Middle Ages, the truth is that it was invented a few centuries later. Very few people had the misfortune of experiencing what it feels like to be trapped in this sarcophagus.
• Normally, the big door would be shut slowly; the tips crushing a person in agonizing pain. There was a tube in the bottom that made the victim see his own blood as it poured out of his body. The few people that did make it to this device, lasted more than 2 days before death finally struck them.
“The Iron Maiden.”
Medieval Information: Everything about the Dark Ages
. Medieval-Castles.org, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
Iron Maiden Torture Device
Percy Bysshe
("To Wordsworth")

Lord Byron was a friend to Shelley.  Shelley named his schooner the “Don Juan” after Lord Byron’s character Don Juan.  Coincidently, Shelley drowned when sailing it and there is speculation that it may have been no accident.
Cooperman, Robert. 
In the Household of Percy Bysshe Shelley:  Poems
.  Gainsville:  University Press of Florida, 1993. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost).  Web. 3 Oct. 2013.
Elizabeth Hitchener
She was a school teacher who inspired his first major poem “Queen Mab” which was also a character that was inspired by Shakespeare’s“
Romeo and Juliet
.  Elizabeth and Percy were said to have had a fling as well.
Cooperman, Robert. 
In the Household of Percy Bysshe Shelley:  Poems
.  Gainsville:  University Press of Florida, 1993. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost).  Web. 3 Oct. 2013.
Westminster Abbey
100 years after Shelley’s ashes were interred in the Protestant Christian cemetery in Rome, he was memorialized here at Westminster Abbey in Poet’s Corner.
Cooperman, Robert.  In the Household of Percy Bysshe Shelley:  Poems.  Gainsville:  University Press of Florida, 1993. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost).  Web. 3 Oct. 2013.
Although he was agnostic, Charles Darwin was highly respected by many leaders in England. When he died, the Dean of Westminster was in France and upon hearing the news sent word that his consent to Darwin’s burial at Westminster would be cheerfully given. Not only is he buried there, but he also has a life-sized relief bust bronze memorial.
"History." Charles Darwin. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2013.
It is probable that the original Abbey had three towers furnished with bells. But, the first record about the Abbey bells is when King Henry III instructed Edward of Westminster to make a bigger bell than he had made for the Abbey. In the following year Edward was commissioned to make a small bell “that shall be in tune with the great bell.”
The Abbey bells ring on annual ringing dates after the service is concluded, unless the Monarch attends. In that case, the bells are rung before the service. The bells ring half-muffled with a leather pad on either side of the clapper ball on solemn occasions. They are also rung for special services, civic events, major church festivals, saints’ days, and Royal and Abbey anniversaries.
"History." Abbey Bells. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2013.
Westminster Abbey is connected to William in a few ways, with probably the most notable memories of our generations for the funeral of his mother, Princess Diana, and more recently his marriage to Kate Middleton.
"Profile: Westminster Abbey." BBC News. BBC, 23 Nov. 2010. Web. 30 Sept. 2013.
Edmund Spenser
• Romantic poet of the late 1500’s
• Most famous poem is
The Faerie Queene
, is a romantic epic whose purpose is to educate and turn young men into gentlemen.

The Faerie Queene
consists of six books. The first installment of books was published in 1590, while the second half were published in 1596.

The Faerie Queene
for John Keats was, “the book that decisively awakened his love for poetry” and “shocked him suddenly into self awareness of his own powers of imagination”
"Overview: The Faerie Queene."
Epics for Students
. Ed. Sara Constantakis. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2011. Literature Resource Center. Web. 30 Sept. 2013.
"John Keats." : The Poetry Foundation. Harriet Monroe Poetry Institute, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2013.

John Keats
(Shelley's poem
Charles Brown
• Romantic poet and good friend of John Keats
• Worked on the tragedy Otho The Great with Keats
• Traveled through Scotland with Keats in the summer of 1818
John Keats. Wolf Z. Hirst. Twayne's English Authors Series 334. Boston: Twayne, 1981.
From Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Bright Star
• Is a poem written my Keats near his death, where he writes of the joys of life
• 2009 film based on the last the years of John Keat’s life
Corcoran, Brendan. "Keats's death: towards a posthumous poetics."
Studies in Romanticism
48.2 (2009): 321+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 30 Sept. 2013.
• Studied at Cambridge University with Edmund Spenser and they become friends while at school
• Studied law
• Had trouble with authority
• In 1592 he published Four Letters
• In 1599 he was terminated by the government about the Marprelate Controversy
• Most of his writings were personal attacks on people; mainly people of higher social class and government people
• In his writings he introduced hexameter verses into our language
Columbia University, Press. “Gabriel Harvey.”
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
, 6th Edition (2013): 1. History Reference Center. Web. 2 Oct. 2013
Gabriel Harvey
Cambridge University
• There is a town also name Cambridge to with a bridge across the River Cam or Granta, from which the town and school took its name
• Has existed at from 875 AD up until of course now
• By 1200, Cambridge was a thriving commercial community
• 1209, scholars from Oxford migrated to Cambridge and settles there
• Students first studied “foundation courses” such as: arts, grammar, logic, and rhetoric followed by: arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy
• At the time of Edmund Spenser, there were not “professors”. It was “masters” that taught the students
"History of Cambridge University." Cambridge University. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2013.
Sir Walter Raleigh
• Born around 1554 near Devon, England
• Died October29, 1618 in London, England
• In 1559 he fought on the Huguenot side in the Wars of Religion in France
• He became Queen Elizabeth’s favorite in 1582
• In 1583, the queen secured him a lease of part of Durham house in Strand, London he became captain of the queen’s guard in 1587
• He was not the most popular guy to the people, but to the queen he was the best
• He was very prideful and was an extravagant spender
• In 1592 a Jesuit pamphlet accused him of keeping a “School of Atheism” but he was atheist by any means

Agnes M.C, Latham “ Raleigh, Sir Walter.”
Britannica Biographies
(2012): 1. History Reference Center. Web. 2 Oct. 2013.
(Her uncle
was Lord Byron's
physician &
traveling companion)
Gabriele Rossetti
• He was born in Abruzzi, Vasto and moved to Naples where he joined the Arcadia.
• He was the father of Christina Rossetti.
• He was active in the Neapolitan revolt of 1820 and made a patriotic poem called “La costituzione in Napoli nel 1820” which translates to “The Constitution in Naples in 1820.”
• He immigrated to England in 1824 where he began to work as a teacher at the King’s College.
• He made several essays on different people and their works especially Dante Alighieri who created works such as the Divine Comedy.
"ROSSETTI, GABRIELE (1783-1854)." Dictionary of Italian Literature. Westport: Greenwood, 1996. Credo Reference. Web. 08 Oct. 2013.
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
• Began a little before 1850 and was composed of painters and poets.
• Focused more on painting than poetry.
• Dante Gabriel Rossetti (Brother of Christina Rossetti) was a leading member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
• Their art was said to be a technical skill without inspiration.
• They had their own periodical called “The Germ” which ran only four times.

"Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood." The Bloomsbury Dictionary of English Literature. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd, 1997. Credo Reference. Web. 08 Oct. 2013.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
• Born May 12, 1828 and died on April 9, 1882.
• His oil paintings were not selling very well so he changed to Watercolors based on literary works. This change resulted in him becoming successful.
• The group Pre-Raphaelite that Dante was a part of broke up in 1852 but he revived it in 1856.
• Together with Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris he brought the Pre-Raphaelite back.
• He would often create pictures of women after his wife’s death. He would often create pictures of Morris’s wife, Jane.

"Rossetti, Dante Gabriel." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012. Credo Reference. Web. 08 Oct. 2013.
Alfred, Lord
(wrote on a rock
"Byron is dead")
In Memoriam

In Memoriam
“was published anonymously in May 1850”.
• “...a powerfully interior exploration of a state of extreme consciousness, grieving, that can therefore be thought of as a deeply Romantic text”.
• Many people believed this was one of Tennyson’s finest poems, even Queen Victoria kept “a copy on her bedside table”.
• One of Tennyson’s most famous stanzas is quoted in, In Memoriam.
“ I hold it true, whate'er befall;
I feel it, when I sorrow most;
'Tis better to have loved and lost
Than never to have loved at all.”
Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850
. London: Routledge, 2003. Credo Reference. 13 Sept. 2007. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics
. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2012. Credo Reference. 11 Sept. 2012. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.
Cambridge University
• The school Tennyson attended in 1827.
• While at school, Tennyson became friends with a fellow student named Arthur Hallam who would play a significant role in Tennyson’s life later on.
• While at Cambridge Tennyson joined a group called the “The Apostles” (636).
• “After the death of his father…Tennyson left Cambridge without taking a degree”.
Damrosch, David, and Kevin J.H. Dettmar.
Masters of British Literature
. Vol. B. New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. Print.
Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850
. London: Routledge, 2003. Credo Reference. 13 Sept. 2007. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
Arthur Henry Hallam
• Writer, friend, and member of “The Apostles”
• Tennyson’s friendship with Hallam had an enormous impact on Tennyson’s writing.
• “On a visit to Somersby, Hallam met and later became engaged to Emily Tennyson”.
• Hallam’s death left Tennyson heavy hearted and despondent, giving way for one of his most significant works,
In Memoriam
"Tennyson, Alfred Lord."
The Hutchinson Encyclopedia
. Abington: Helicon, 2013.Credo Reference. 21 Aug. 2013. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.
Poet Laureate
Appointed by Queen Victoria, after William Wordsworth's death in 1850
Was second choice, first choice was Samuel Rogers, Tennyson beat out Elizabeth Barret Browning and Leigh Hunt
Held position until his death in 1892, the longest term of any Poet Laureate ever
Batchelor, John. Tennyson: To Strive, To Seek, To Find. London: Chatto and Windus, 2012.
Regarded one of the three most famous people alive at the time, with Queen Victoria and Gladstone
Edgar Allan Poe "I am not sure that Tennyson is not the greatest of poets."
Prince Albert was heavily influential in Tennyson's appointment of Poet Laureate, and the Queen quickly became a huge fan.
"Alfred, Lord Tennyson." Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation, n.d. Web. 16 Oct 2013.
The Apostles
A secret intellectual society at Cambridge
Arthur Hallam was the first to recruit him into the society
Quickly gained the title "The Poet of the Apostles"
Leadbetter, Emma. "Tennyson at Cambridge, The Apostles." Cambridge Authors. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct 2013.

Oxford University
Arnold was a
student at Oxford

Professor X
The X Men comics by Stan Lee have spawned toys, multiple animated television programs, and four major motion pictures. The latest film, X-Men: First Class shows the beginning of the superhero team and gives an in depth look into the life of Charles Xavier, the leader of the X-Men. The film uses various shots of the college in its first few scenes, where Xavier is shown receiving his doctorate at the historic college.
“X Men in England! Superhero Blockbuster’s Latest Installment is Filmed at Oxford
University.” DailyMail. “N.p.”, 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.
Harry Potter
The eight films based on the book series by J.K. Rowling have grown a large fan base. The magic and the story are only parts of the film tied together by the uniquely authentic sets and locations of the film. The “Great Hall of Hogwarts” was designed in the theme of the Great Hall at Oxford’s Christ Church Cathedral. Some of the most iconic scenes of the series took place on location at Christ Church. The BBC News confirms that “The staircase which leads up to the Great Hall was used for the arrival scene for new Hogwarts students in the first two Harry Potter films.”
“Harry Potter.” Christ Church Oxford. “N.p.”, 2011. Web. 21 Oct. 2013. “Harry Potter fans boost Oxford Christ Church Catherdral.” BBC News. “N.p”, 2012.
Web. 21 Oct. 2013.
James Bond A.K.A. Agent 007
James Bond may be the most daring and dangerous man ever to have received tutelage at Oxford. In the 19997 film Tomorrow Never Dies, Bond, played by Pierce Brosnan, spends some time at the historic university. While there he, as Filmsite.com reports, “brushes up on a little Danish.”
“X Men in England! Superhero Blockbuster’s Latest Installment is Filmed at Oxford
University.” DailyMail. “N.p.”, 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.
Gerard Manley
(Arnold was Hopkins's
poetry professor)
The Wreck of the Deutschland
• Written in 1875, but not printed/published until 1918
• Inspired by “Deutschland”, a German ship that sank in the Thames River in 1875, also where five Franciscan nuns, exiled from Germany, drowned.
• First poem written by Hopkins in the format as he describes as “sprung rhythm”
• Edited by Robert Bridges, which was also Hopkins’ chief correspondent and literary executor
"`Wreck of the Deutschland, The'" The Bloomsbury Dictionary of English Literature. London: Bloomsbury, 1997. Credo Reference. 1 Jan. 2002. Web. 22 Oct. 2013.
Roman Catholicism
• Hopkins entered the Roman Catholic Church in 1866, while being an undergraduate at Oxford, and was ordained in 1877.
• Many laws against Catholicism began in the Elizabethan Era
• English Catholics began in 1630’s in North America as the colony of Maryland
• John Carroll became the first Roman Catholic bishop in the United States in 1789
• In January 1999, the Catholic population in the United States was over 61 million, making up 23 percent of the total population. By 2002 the Catholic community of New Jersey was estimated about 3.5 million
"Catholicism." Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2005. Credo Reference. 12 Jan. 2009. Web. 22 Oct. 2013.

Charles Thomas Wooldridge
• Royal Horse Guards trooper
• hung for murdering his wife
• inspired Wilde’s poem, The Ballad of Reading Gaol
Rumens, Carol. "Poem of the Week: The Ballad of Reading Gaol." The Guardian. N.p., 23 Mar. 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
The Woman’s World
• a Victorian women’s magazine, edited by Wilde from 1887-89
• “Wilde encouraged contributors to disregard conventional ideas of femininity and gender, but did not assume that the modern woman must avoid frivolity if she wished to be taken seriously.”
• associated itself with aestheticism
• Wilde went so far as to ask Queen Victoria to submit poems, but was refused
Hurst, Isobel. "Ancient and Modern Women In The Woman's World." Victorian Studies 52.1 (2009): 42-51. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
• famous cemetery in Paris, France
• location of Wilde’s tomb
• hosts a plethora of famous tombs, including Chopin and Jim Morrison
• Wilde’s tomb originally showcased an angel with an erection, but it’s long been broken
• his tomb requires a glass encasement currently, because of the constant graffiti of lipstick kisses
“Cimetière Du Père-Lachaise." A View on Cities. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
Royal House Guard
Wooldridge joined the Royal House Guard in 1886 and married but the Commanding officer who didn’t give him permission forced them to live apart.
Wilde, Oscar. The Ballad Of Reading Gaol. Champaign, Ill. [P.O. Box 2782, Champaign 61825]: Project Gutenberg, n.d. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 30 Oct. 2013.
Holland, Merlin, and Rupert Hart-Davis, eds.
The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde
. New York: Holt, 2000.
Laura Ellen “Nell” Glendell
Because they had to live apart there was a strain on their marriage. It didn’t help that she was flirtatious and he was jealous and suspicious. They argued a lot and then she started using her maiden name at which point he visited her, attacked her blackening her eyes and injuring her nose. She refused to see him after that and wrote to him to stay away. Rumors of an affair with another soldier sent him straight back to her lodgings and after violently arguing even into the streets he took his razor and cut her throat. He then turned himself in to the Police Constable Forrest who arrested him and took him in.
Wilde, Oscar. The Ballad Of Reading Gaol. Champaign, Ill. [P.O. Box 2782, Champaign 61825]: Project Gutenberg, n.d. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 30 Oct. 2013.
Holland, Merlin, and Rupert Hart-Davis, eds.
The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde
. New York: Holt, 2000.
H. S. Wood
of High Wycombe defended Wooldridge on trial but to no avail. Within two minutes Wooldridge was found guilty. Although H.S. Wood tried to get him to fight for a stay or file for an appeal, on the morning of Wooldridge’s execution, he attended a service in the Prison chapel filled with grief and remorse for his terrible crime and was resigned to his fate. Because of “The Ballad of Reading Gaol” by Oscar Wilde Wooldridge became the most famous person ever to be executed at Reading.
Wilde, Oscar. The Ballad Of Reading Gaol. Champaign, Ill. [P.O. Box 2782, Champaign 61825]: Project Gutenberg, n.d. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 30 Oct. 2013.
Holland, Merlin, and Rupert Hart-Davis, eds. The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. New York: Holt, 2000.

• Hardy created a fictional region with realistic elements, first appearing in Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd (Millgate 149).
• Hardy studied into Hutchin’s History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset to make Wessex “a total imaginative world with a solid, complex, and comprehensively realized existence in space and time” (176).
• Hardy initially had Wessex as an equivalent to Dorset, but later expanded into multiple regions where he used fictitious names for real places. Critics argue over just how “real” these regions are compared to their counterparts. (232-233).
Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy, A Biography Revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 31 Oct. 2013.
The Return of the Native
• This was Hardy’s fifth published novel was originally published in “Belgravia” magazine from January to December 1878. It was almost not published (Morgan 59).
• Hardy’s The Return of the Native was met with great reception to his plot and descriptions but many critiqued his character’s development. (Morgan 60).
• The main character, Eustacia, was his evolved form of Bathsheba of Far from the Madding Crowd. Hardy hoped to “expose the anger and frustration experienced by the intelligent woman confined, mind and body, to an inutile (nothing to do), unvarying and isolated existence” (Morgan 64).
Morgan, Rosemarie. Student Companion To Thomas Hardy. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2007. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 31 Oct. 2013.
Albert Einstein
• Hardy is said to have studied of spiritualism and religion concerning afterlife but “felt faintly reassured by science” (Turner 256).
• His final works were greatly concerned with his own mortality and the mortality of those around him.
• Florence Dugdale, his wife, stated Hardy studied Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity at night.
• Hardy compared the theory to real life in a Quarterly article stating: “Events do not happen, they are just there and we come across them in the voyage of life” (257).
Turner, Paul. The Life Of Thomas Hardy : A Critical Biography. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1998. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 31 Oct. 2013.
William Barnes
• According to Poetry Foundation, “[Hardy] strongly identifying himself and his work with Dorset, Hardy saw himself as a successor to the Dorset dialect poet William Barnes, who had been a friend and mentor.”
“Thomas Hardy.” Poetryfoundation.org. Poetry Foundation. n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2013.
John Hicks
• When Thomas Hardy was sixteen, he began an apprenticeship to John Hicks, an architect in Dorchester.
• According to C.D. Merriman, “He conducted surveys and excelled as draughtsman, working for Hicks until 1862 when he left for London to work with architect Arthur Blomfield.”
Merriman, C.D. “Thomas Hardy.” Online-literature.com. The Literature Network. 2008. Web. 30 Oct. 2013.
James Joyce
• While Hardy played only a small role in influencing Joyce, “the example of the older novelist was brought vividly home to him in his early years of exile, as he struggled to gain publication” (Block 338).
• According to Haskell M. Block, “The earliest reference the Irish novelist makes to Hardy appears in Joyce’s first publication, a critique of Ibsen’s When We Dead Awaken” (337).
Block, Haskell M. "James Joyce and Thomas Hardy."
Modern Language Quarterly
19.4 (1958): 337. Academic Search Premier. Web. 30 Oct. 2013.

World War I
Siegfried Sassoon joined the army just before the war broke out but was kept out of action until 1915 because of a broken arm. Once he was in action and on the front lines, he was traumatized by the reality of real trench warfare. However, he earned the nickname ‘Mad Jack’ because of his bravery and willingness to go into dangerous situations with disregard for his own safety. At one point, he single handedly went into a German trench and killed 50 of their soldiers. He did not signal for reinforcements afterwards, he instead sat down and read a book of poetry. Eventually he was awarded the Military Cross.
"Siegfried Sassoon Biography." Biography Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2013.
Beverley Nichols
Nichols attended Oxford University and is best known for his gardening books although he also wrote more than 60 books and plays. He and Siegfried Sassoon had an intimate romantic relationship.
"Beverley Nichols." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Sept. 2013. Web. 04 Nov. 2013.
Wilfred Owen
Owen was a WWI soldier and poet known for his writings on the horrors of trench and chemical warfare. He suffered from shell shock as a result of the action he saw in the war and was sent to Craiglockhart War Hospital to recover. While there, he met Sassoon and became close friends. Sassoon was sent back to the front lines and survived being shot in the head and was then placed on sick-leave. Owen was so inspired that he wanted to return to the front lines to take Sassoon’s place so that the truth of the war would continue to be told. However, he died one week before the war was over.
"Wilfred Owen." Poets.org. Academy of American Poets, n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2013.
John Keats

• English poet (103)
• Combined technical perfection with deeply sensual imagery (103)
• Negatively criticized during his lifetime and was not recognized as a great poet until the nineteenth century (103)
• Wilfred Owens early influences included the early romantic works of John Keats
• Aesthetics and imagery continue to influence contemporary critics and move ordinary readers (103)
Bossy, Michel-André, Thomas Brothers, and John C. McEnroe. Artists, Writers, And Musicians. Westport, CT: ORYX PRESS, 2001. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 6 Nov. 2013.
Rupert Brooke
• English poet (70)
• His sonnets celebrate the discovery of a cause (70)
• Traveled and later returned to England to enlist in World War I (70)
• Earlier patriotic works strongly contrasted Owen’s work but later influenced them (70)
• Died of blood-poisoning during the war, sold over 300,000 copies of his works during the next decade (70)
Hamilton, Ian. The Oxford Companion To Twentieth-Century Poetry In English. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press, 1994. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 6 Nov. 2013.
Craiglockhart War Hospital
• Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon were treated to this hospital for shell shock.
• It was the most famous shell shock hospital.
• Only opened for twenty-eight months.
• Important place in the development of British Neuropsychiatry.
• It was up to deal with epidemic of psychological casualties created in muddy trenches of the First World War.
• It still stands today housing Edinburgh’s Napier Univesrity.
Webb, Thomas EF. "Dottyville’—Craiglockhart War Hospital and Shell-shock Treatment in the First World War."
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
99.6 (2006): 342-46. NCBI. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

John Butler Yeats
John Butler Yeats was William's father, and an Irish painter who was very well known in his time. John pushed William to become a painter as he grew up in the County Sligo- but William returned to Ireland with a more profound interest in poetry. Upon his return he (obviously) pursued writing and began to steep himself more deeply in his Irish roots which ultimately led to his association with the…
Celtic Revival
The Celtic Revival was a movement W.B. Yeats was involved with after leaving County Sligo in England. The revival was one against the cultural influences of English rule in Ireland during the Victorian Era. Overall the Celtic Revival promoted Irish heritage, and its independence.
"W.B. Yeats." Poets.org. Academy of American Poets, 1997-2013. Web. 10 Nov. 2013.
Ezra Pound
A fellow poet and good friend of W.B. Yeats, he influenced him greatly after 1910, adding a more modern flair to his works, even influencing him politically, even though Pound's political stand wasn't the most "ideal" to follow, as he was an American arrested for treason for supporting the Fascist regime during wartime.
"W.B. Yeats." Poets.org. Academy of American Poets, 1997-2013. Web. 10 Nov. 2013.
• Yeats was born in a suburb of Dublin
• Belonged to the Anglo-Irish Protestant ascendancy
• Very proud of his Irish heritage
Damrosch, David, Dettmar, Kevin, eds. Masters of British Literature Volume B, Pearson Education, Inc, 2008. Print.
Irish Theatre
• Yeats founded this along with Lady Gregory
• Later became the Abbey Theatre
• Yeats served as its chief playwright
"William Butler Yeats - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 12 Nov 2013.
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