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Whooping Cough

This presentation will explore the various aspects of vaccination and whooping cough. It explains the action of the bacterium to the human immune response and issues regarding vaccination.
by

Kenny Tran

on 13 July 2014

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Transcript of Whooping Cough

- catching the disease
Pertussis Toxins
Tracheal Cytotoxin - Stop cilia from beating
Pertussis Toxin - helps development and colonisation
Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) - same as above
Inside the body
What happens next?
Transmission
Whooping Cough, or Pertussis, is a condition caused by a bacterium known as
Bordetella pertussis
.

It can occur at any age, but effects are worst in infants. It can be vaccinated against.

The bacteria is pathogenic only to humans (Guiso, 2009).

Symptoms
The first stage or the
Catarrhal stage
is the stage where 'normal cold' symptoms happen (eg. runny nose, cough)

The second stage or the
Paroxysmal stage
is what the disease is known for: bursts of coughing appear, known as Paroxysms punctuated by loud breathing in (hence whooping). It can also lead to pneumonia.

Final stage is recovery. Pan to the right for a video of the second stage.
The Role of Vaccinations
Vaccinations have greatly reduced the amount of deaths that occur from infectious diseases worldwide and in Australia.
What is Immunity?
How to be immune?
Immunity is the ability to fight off infections/diseases by a pathogen through the use of antibodies
Etiology
Immunity and Vaccinations
Jabbed!
Vaccination
and Whooping Cough

An Introduction
to
Whooping Cough
What is it?
References:
document version at https://www.dropbox.com/s/uz0popintdpduiu/Sources.docx
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Chiappini, E., Stival, A., Galli, L. and de Martino, M. (2013). Pertussis re-emergence in the post-vaccination era. BMC Infect Dis, [online] 13(1), p.151. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3623740/ [Accessed 10 Jul. 2014].
Connelly, C., Sun, Y. and Carbonetti, N. (2012). Pertussis toxin exacerbates and prolongs airway inflammatory responses during Bordetella pertussis infection. Infection and Immunology, [online] 80(12), pp.4317-32. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23027529# [Accessed 7 Jul. 2014].
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DeSanto, L. (n.d.). Return of the Whoop! The Resurgence of Pertussis. [online] National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science. Available at: http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/files/whooping_cough.pdf [Accessed 1 Jul. 2014].
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Guiso, N. (2009). Bordetella pertussis and Pertussis Vaccines. Clinical Infectious Diseases, [online] 49(10), pp.1565-1569. Available at: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/49/10/1565.full.pdf+html [Accessed 30 Jun. 2014].
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Whooping Cough is usually spread by coughing or sneezing -- then others breathe it in
Among case-infants, family members were the main source of pertussis. (Bisgard, et al 2004)
The Human Immune Response
Vaccination:
"The Issues"
Active Immunity
When an organism's immune system form memory cells in response to a pathogen
1st Line of Defense
Keep the invaders out!
The 1st line of defense has chemical or physical
barriers to prevent entry of pathogens in the first place -- in this case, pertussis
Skin - an excellent barrier
Mucus Membrane and Cilia
2nd Line of Defense
Destroy it before it causes harm!
Macrophages and mainly Neurophils are involved in detecting and eliminating
B. Pertussis
Evidence indicates that neutrophils
appear to be the main target cells
for ACT. (Andreasen and Carbonetti, 2009)



The toxin suppresses innate immune responses during early infection (Connelly, et al. 2012)

3rd Line of Defense
Macrophages which consume the antigen
toxins and bacteria takes a fragment
and presents it on it's
membrane
Pertussis Toxin has been shown to target airway macrophages to allow for a delayed response (Carbonetti, et al, 2007)
*ACT is an enzyme for the conversion of ATP to cAMP
The Specific Response
On second infection, there is a faster, rapid and elevated response and antibodies are made quickly.
Passive Immunity
When an organism develops temporary immunity from antibodies given in some other way (i.e. no memory)
Gram stain of B. Pertussis
Antibodies
Neutralisation
Agglutination
Complement Proteins
Why should we vaccinate?
Protection from Diseases
Eradication and Elimination
Lower health care costs
Higher life expectancy
Herd Immunity
(Andre F, et al.
2008)

Herd Immunity
Herd Immunity is the fact that when a high
proportion of the population is immunised,
the risk of infection by a suceptible individual
is lower.
Why does this work?
Transmission of diseases is slowed down and
immune people acts as a 'barrier' against the
disease.
Simulation: http://www.software3d.com/Home/Vax/Immunity.php
A new whooping cough epidemic
in Australia
Myth: Vaccination causes autism
In a paper submitted by Andrew Wakefield to the Lancet in 1998, he suggested that there was a link between autism and vaccination (more specifically MMR).
This led to a decline in
vaccination rates because of
fears of autism (and the establishment of anti vaccination groups).

The paper has since been
retracted (Lancet, 2010) but the damage is done.

A systematic review found that there was
no link
between vaccinations (MMR) and autism (or any other disease). (Demicheli et al., 2012)
Studies show that the current whooping cough vaccine was less effective than it's predecessor (article published by Nogrady)

Data has shown that the DTaP vaccine is 78% effective in preventing whooping cough on the first instance. (Chiappini et al., 2013)

Is this leading to further outbreaks? What can we do to stop it?


Toxins caused statistically significant
reduction in phagocytosis (Mobberley-Schuuman et al, 2003)
Credit: Australian Bureau of Statistics, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/f31665d095514016ca2570ec001b1375!OpenDocument
Image Credit: CDC via Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pertussis#mediaviewer/File:Pertussis.jpg
Image Credit: CDC via Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bordetella_pertussis#mediaviewer/File:Bordetella_pertussis.jpg
Video Credit: Paul Gallagher, Youtube
www.youtube.com/watch?v=wuvn-vp5InE
Image Credit: Mayo Medical Laboratories http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/images/articles/communique/2009/11fig1.jpg
Image Credit: Jennifer D/Wired http://archive.wired.com/geekmom/2010/12/pediatricans-views-on-vaccines/pertussis/
Image Credit (for main and three sub diagrams): National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, at http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/files/whooping_cough.pdf
Image Credit: Tozzi et al. 2005 at http://www.cmaj.ca/content/172/4/509.full
Image Credit: pbl Assay Science, at https://www.pblassaysci.com/content/introduction-antibodies
Image Credit: quizlet at http://o.quizlet.com/fkOPSBKDBj8JR8iuzxSkFA_m.png
Image Credit: Pharmarcy Today at http://www.pharmacytoday.co.nz/news/2014/april-2014/14/whooping-cough-research-to-inform-new-zealand-immunisation-programme.aspx
Image Credit: ITV News at http://www.itv.com/news/granada/story/2012-09-27/whooping-cough-vaccine/
Image Credit: Thinkstock via imjuger at http://entrepadres.imujer.com/5819/las-primeras-horas-de-lactancia-materna
Image Credit: Huffington Post at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/26/knee-osteoarthritis-drug-monovisc-_n_4857827.html
Image Credit: Shedexpedition at http://www.shedexpedition.com/great-wall-in-china/
Image Credit: University of Chicago at http://www.uchospitals.edu/online-library/content=CDR258035
Image Credit: Medics Index at http://medicsindex.ning.com/profiles/blogs/5826870:BlogPost:352484
Image Credit: Self Made
Image Credit: Wikipedia user Ubli at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophage#mediaviewer/File:Macrophage.jpg
Image Credit: Hematology Outlines
Image Credit: Self made
Image Credit: http://www.spc.int/lrd/ext/disease_manual_final/a040__rinderpest.html
Image Credit: Simulation Link above
Image Credit: Canadian Medical Association Journal http://www.cmaj.ca/content/182/4/E199/F1.expansion.html
by Kenny Tran
Audio Running Time:
6min 55sec~7 mins

Background Photo Credit:
Pearson Education,
http://classes.midlandstech.com/carterp/courses/bio225/chap24/lecture4.htm
When you see this, this means that there is audio
Macrophages and Neutrophils
*Note: Vaccines cause this to happen as well, except its not as harmful to the body
Full transcript