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Transcript of Early Childhood
Rigidity about gender stereotypes high during preschool,
decreases over the elementary school years
Children begin to favor same-sex playmates as early as 30 to 36 months of age - preference strengthens during elementary-school years
Gender segregation – separate boys’ and girls’ peer groups and greater levels of same-sex interaction
greatest cognitive strength of the preschooler
can refer to past and future
pretend or fantasy play
Perceptual salience - focus on most obvious features; can be fooled by appearance
Centration - center attention only on a single aspect of a problem
Single classification - sort by a single dimension at one time
Irreversible thought - cannot mentally undo an action
Static thought - fail to understand processes of change or transformations from one state to another
view the world solely from one’s own perspective
difficulty recognizing other points of view
Difficulty with tasks that require logic
Discuss the characteristics of preoperational thought.
Soon after birth begin to receive differential treatment
Infants soon learn gender categories and associate themselves with the social category to which they belong
By 18 months, most seem to have emerging understanding that they are either like males or like females
As acquire gender:
begin to demonstrate preferences for gender-appropriate activities and toys
acquire awareness of their biological sex
acquire motives, values, and patterns of behavior that their culture considers appropriate for members of their biological sex
Causes of gender differences?
Around time become aware of gender identities, begin to learn society’s gender stereotypes - examples?
Children who insist most strongly on clear boundaries between the sexes and avoid consorting with the opposite sex tend to be socially competent and popular
Children who violate gender segregation rules tend to be less well adjusted and run the risk of peer rejection
Boys face stronger pressures to adhere to gender-role expectations than girls do
Explain how gender identity develops for infants and children.