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Transcript of Revolutionary War
Lexington & Concord
After the violence at Lexington and Concord, the colonist were determined to fight for their freedom. They were willing to risk their lives to end the tyranny.
The colonies declared their independence, and that lead to war.
Battle of Bunker Hill
The Redcoats marched up the hill, but the Americans stopped they march twice with their gunpowder. Then, on the third march the colonist ran out of gunpowder. Instead, when the Redcoats almost reached the top, the colonist fired. Finally, the British fired back.
The Continental Army
John Adams of Massachusetts proposed to the Congress to form an army that made up of the colonists. They agreed an George Washington became the commander-in-chief.
The army had 36 barrels of gunpowder left, which wasn't enough. Washington sent letters to the colonies asking for more gunpowder, and he got them.
At Lexington, the colonist and the Redcoats shot at each other. The colonist ran to safety and the Redcoats won. The British willfully shot the colonist. Then, at Concord, the Redcoats shot at the colonists and the colonist shot back. The Redcoats ran in panic and the colonist won.
It was short, but very bloody.
The war had begun.
The army fought for the colonists' freedom.
Washington knew he needed artillery to destroy the Redcoats' defenses. Washington sent Henry Knox to Ticonderoga, an old British fort that the colonist had seized, to take the guns. Knox brought the guns back to Boston with help from oxen.
British Leaves Boston
Washington placed the cannons on the ridges of Dorchester Heights, all aiming towards Boston.
General Howe didn't want another battle and left on ships to Canada along.
Washington knew it was just the beginning of the war.
Olive Branch Petition
The Congress sent a petition to George lll asking him to stop the quarrel, but it was too late. By the time it reached London, King George had already ordered his ministers "to bring the traitors to justice."
an olive branch is a symbol of peace
Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called
It was about how Americans didn't need loyalty towards the king and that they should fight for their independence.
Many colonist were persuaded that fighting for independence was the right way.
Thomas Jefferson wrote about equal human rights. He wrote, "...
all men are created equal...rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Thomas was concerned about the colonists' rights. He believed it's the governments job to protect the rights of the people.
The Final Break
King George didn't seem to care about the colonists' rights. Instead, the king wanted to rule "an absolute tyranny over these states [the colonies]." Jefferson wrote a long list of the king's crimes.
The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia's State House to debate independence. On the first day, it was undecided. The next day, every colony except New York voted for independence. New York didn't vote.
Debate Over Slavery
The Congress decided to revise Jefferson's declaration. Most of the delegates like it except the passage on slavery and how Jefferson charged the king for violating the rights.
Most people didn't like it. The Southerners didn't want to free the slaves, and the Northerners worried that New England would be offended. People also thought it was unfair to blame the king for the slavery.
July 4, 1776
The delegates approved the final version of the Declaration of Independence. They signed it and pledged to support independence with "our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor."
African Americans fought battles at Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, but they weren't allowed to join the Continental Army. The British promised to free all the slaves, if they fought for him. Many slaves escaped and became Loyalist.
Washington was forced to include African Americans because there wasn't enough volunteers. By 1779, 15% were African Americans.
Defeat at New York
The American and British armies met in Brooklyn, New York. The British won this battle because the Americans were inexperienced, while the British had intensive training, and a greater number.
Victory at Trenton
Washington's army went to Trenton and snuck up onto the British. They surprised them and the mercenaries surrender. Washington took 868 prisoners without losing a man.
It was a snowing and the ice cut through their shoes, but they went on for freedom.
Battle of Monmouth
Washington's army chased the British to Monmouth. Washington rallied his men to fight. At night, the British escaped across the Hudson River to New York.
The War Goes South
After the British failed to conquer the North, they decided move the war South. They believed Loyalist were there waiting to join the cause.
Clinton successfully attacked Savannah, Georgia. Then, he conquered North and South Caroline. Finally, Clinton returned to New York City and left Lord Charles Cornwallis to run the war in the South.
A Trap at Yorktown
Cornwallis was settling into Yorktown. Meanwhile, the French sent 5,000 troops to join Washington. Then, another 3,000 troops were going to arrive on 29 French warships. Washington used this to plan a trap.
The French and the Washington's army surrounded Yorktown. The warships blocked the entrance of Chesapeake Bay. Cornwallis had no hope to get help from the British navy.
Cornwallis waited for the British navy to save him, but they never did. He surrounded and the colonist won.