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Minerals and Rocks

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Michael Miller

on 8 May 2017

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Transcript of Minerals and Rocks

Types of Minerals
Silicate – minerals that contain both silicon and oxygen.
Make up 90% of the Earth’s crust.
Examples: Feldspar and Quartz
If a rock has a
high silica
content, then it is
. If a rock has a
low silica
content, then it is

Nonsilicate – minerals that do not contain both silicon and oxygen.
Examples: Calcite and Corundum
What is a mineral?
Minerals are made up of elements.

Most minerals are made of compounds (1 or more elements).

Minerals are also made of crystals.
Crystals are solid, geometric forms of minerals produced by a repeating pattern of atoms.
Identifying Minerals
Color – not a reliable indicator (pyrite – “fools gold”)
Luster – the way a surface reflects light.
Streak – the color in powdered form.
Cleavage – the tendency to break along flat surfaces.
Fracture – the tendency to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces.
Hardness – resistance to being scratched.
Density – how much matter in a given space.
Special Properties of Minerals
Fluorescence – (ex. Glowing)
Chemical Reaction – (ex. Fizzing)
Optical properties – (ex. Double image)
Taste – (ex. Salty)
Radioactivity – minerals that contain radium or uranium.
Ask these questions to see if a substance is a minerals:
Is it a solid?
Is it formed in nature?
Is it nonliving material?
Does it have a crystalline structure?

A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid with a crystalline structure.
What is a mineral?
Talc – least hard 1
Diamond – hardest 10
Take the mineral you are identifying and scratch it with one of the 10 reference minerals.
If the mineral you are trying to identify is scratched by the reference mineral, then it is harder than your mineral.
Mohs’ Hardness Scale
Use a mnemonic device to remember the minerals in the scale.
Example: Terrible Giants Can Find Alligators Or Quaint Tigers Conveniently Digestible.
Create your own: T _______ G _______ C_______ F _______ A _______
O _______ Q _______ T _______
C _______D _______
Moh’s Hardness Scale

Minerals can form many ways.
They can form with salt water dries up.
When there is a change in pressure or temperature inside of the earth.
When magma rises and cools inside of the earth.
Formation of Minerals
Ore is a mineral deposit large enough and pure enough to be mined for a profit.

Ore is mined two ways:
Surface mining – mined near the Earth’s surface (copper)
Deep mining – mined deep within the Earth. (coal and diamonds)
Reclamation – returning the land to its original state after the mining is completed.
Costly and time consuming
Recycle them or reduce the need for minerals is a better option.

Minerals are nonrenewable resources. This means once you take them from the Earth, they cannot be replaced.
Watch this Study Jams slide show on minerals.
Take the quiz afterward and write your score on the study guide.
A rock is a solid mixture of crystals of one or more minerals.
Early humans used rock to make tools
Buildings (concrete)
Science: helps us with the history of the Earth
Rock and Roll!
3 Rock Types:

Magma is the hot liquid that forms when rock partially or completely melts.
The rock cycle is the process by which one rock type changes into another.
The Rock Cycle
Composition – the minerals the rock is made of.

Texture – sizes, shapes, and positions of the grains of which it is made.
Fine grained
Classifying Rocks
When magma or lava cools down enough, it solidifies to form igneous rock.
Igneous means “fire” in Latin.
Igneous Rock
Intrusive Igneous rock forms when magma cools beneath the Earth’s surface.
Usually coarse grained.
Cools slowly

Example: Granite
Igneous rock formations
Extrusive Igneous rocks form on the Earth’s surface.
Usually fine grained.
Cools quickly
Can form from volcanoes or from fissures (long cracks in the Earth’s surface)

Example: Obsidian
Igneous rock formations
Through weathering and erosion, sediment (rock fragments) is deposited in layers and becomes compacted.
Weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction

Layered rock – strata
Stratification – the layering of sedimentary rock. (tells us a lot about history)
Sedimentary Rock
Clastic – made of fragments of other rocks and minerals. (ex. Sandstone)

Chemical – made of solutions of minerals and water. (ex. limestone)

Organic – made of remains of animals that once lived in the ocean. ( coal )

Fossils are formed in sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary Rock compositon
Meta means changed and morphos means shape in Latin.

Rock undergoes metamorphism through heat or pressure or both.

All 3 types of rocks can change into metamorphic rock.
Metamorphic Rock
Foliated – has minerals that are aligned like pages in a book. (gneiss)

Nonfoliated – does not have a regular pattern.
Usually made of one or a few minerals. (marble)
Textures of Metamorphic Rock
Stop Here.
You will learn about rocks soon!
Only some minerals have these properties
Watch this video about how to identify minerals:

Watch this Rock Cycle Video on Study Jams:


Take the quiz once your are finished.
Write your score in your study guide.
Click on this link to open a rock cycle interactive diagram:

Explore the diagram by rolling your mouse over the names of the rock types and clicking on the images.

Then click on "Complete the Cycle" at the bottom. Write your score out of 10 on your study guide.
Rock Cycle Diagram
The End :)
Weathering is the breakdown of rock into smaller and smaller pieces.
Physical/Mechanical Weathering
Mechanical weathering- the breakdown of rock by physical means (ice, wind, water, gravity)
Chemical Weathering
Chemical weathering- the chemical breakdown of rock into new substances. One of the most common forms is oxidation (rust). Acid rain can also chemically weather rocks.
Watch this Study Jams video on Weathering and Erosion:
Take the test after you watch the video. Write your score in your study guide.
• Erosion is the removal and transport of surface material (rock and soil).
Layered rock – strata

Stratification – the layering of sedimentary rock. (tells us a lot about history)
is a loose mixture of small mineral fragments and organic materials.

Bedrock is the layer beneath soil.

Humus is small particles of decayed plant and animal material.
This organic part of the soil is nutrient rich.
Acid Rain
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