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Civil Rights Movement Timeline
Transcript of Civil Rights Movement Timeline
Sets of laws in the North and the South that date back as far as the early 1800's.
Also identified as "Slave Codes"; they were enacted primarily against free blacks.
Blacks were not allowed to bear arms, assemble, learn how to read or write, assemble, testify against White people in court, or speak freely.
After the Thirteenth Amendment was passed states started to legislate more Black Codes to ensure their ability as a labor force.
It passed the senate on April 8, 1864 and the House on January 31, 1865.
This was ratified on December 6, 1865 after the Civil War
The amendment was officially abolished slavery in America.
All people born within the United States are legal citizens.
No state has the ability to deny a person of life, liberty, or property.
Citizens are guaranteed protection of their rights.
Little Rock Nine
After the Brown v. Board case all schools couldn't be segregated but it took 3 years for nine african americans to go to Little Rock High School.
On their first day of school the Governor had the national guard keep the 9 teenagers from entering the school.
The 9 students were greeted by angry mobs that yelled insults at them.
Later, the President sent the National Guard to protect the nine students for a year.
The 9 teenagers only went to school for a year which was filled with hatred from the other students.
JFK becomes President
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state.
Race, color, or previous condition of servitude does not alter this right.
It gave protection for African American citizens to vote.
Jim Crow Laws
On November 8th, 1960 JFK was elected the youngest President and he was the first Catholic to be President.
He beat Nixon but it was a very narrow race and one of the most famous campaigns in American history.
JFK was a supporter of the civil rights and spoke with Martin Luther King Jr. often.
A racial caste system or way of life enacted in southern states till the mid 1960's
It degraded African Americans as an inferior class to whites in all areas.
Restrictions were placed on facilities, etiquette, public transport, and social interactions.
These laws allowed the violent acts of mob lynchings to continue.
Atlanta "Compromise" Address
African-American spokesman, Booker T. Washington gave a famous speech before a predominantly white audience at the International Exposition in Atlanta.
His speech responded to the "Negro problem" or the issue of what to do with changing social and economic statuses between whites and blacks.
Washington asked whites to trust blacks and provide them with opportunities so that both races could advance in industry and agriculture.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Student activists began the freedom rides in the spring of 1961.
They wanted to protest the segregation on interstate buses and terminal.
The students started in Washington heading to New Orleans but in Anniston, Alabama they were met by an angry crowd of 100 people.
The first bus was firebombed, the police did nothing to stop the attacks, and the freedom riders ended up flying to New Orleans thus ending the 1960s freedom rides.
Homer Plessy was jailed for deliberately sitting in a East Louisiana "white" car
Louisiana had passed the Separate Car Act, which legally separate people.
Plessy's lawyer argued that the regulation violated the thirteenth and fourteenth.
The decision was that separate facilities were constitutional as long as they were equal.
This "separate but equal" clause set a precedent for many preceding cases on public facilities.
Martin Luther king Jr. arrested and jailed in Birmingham
Creation of the NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Founders included W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida Bell Wells-Barrett, and Mary White Ovington.
Created to erase discrimination and segregation in all areas of life, to oppose racism, and to assure African American citizens their rights.
Their actions were mostly centered around national issues, such as lynching.
Martin Luther King Jr. was in Birmingham participating in a nonviolent protest of segregation in Birmingham, Alabama.
He was in the Birmingham jail for 11 days.
King was arrested by Eugene "Bull" Connor for not having a permit.
Integration of Armed Forces
Letter from a Birmingham Jail"
President Truman was an important factor in accomplishing this feat.
He signed Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948.
This order declared "equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin."
Brown vs. Board of Education
The name that was given to five different court cases which dealt with public school segregation.
Thurgood Marshall, a main defender, argued that the "separate but equal" clause did not apply.
The facilities were unequal and sociological tests showed that black students in segregated schools often felt inferior to white children.
The case had come to a halt and when it was revisited, Governor Earl Warren was the replacement Chief Justice who was able to bring the judges to a unanimous decision to ban segregation in schools.
March on Washington DC, I have a dream speech
Civil Rights Act
Malcom X Speech " The Ballot or the Bullet"
The assasination of Malcolm X,
Selma to Montgomery March
The assasination of MLK Jr.
Race Riots in Los Angeles
Election of President Barack Obama of the United States
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks refused to give up her first seat in the "colored section" to a white man when the bus was full.
In response to her arrest and fine of $10, the Montgomery Bus Boycott began.
The boycott 13-month protest that concluded with the Supreme Court decision that segregation on public buses was unconstitutional.
Martin Luther King Jr. became a prominent leader through the protest that was organized by the Montgomery Improvement Association.
He was elected as the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008
Obama is the first African American President of the United States.
News sources claim that his election symbolically broke the last "racial barrier" existing in the United States.
The Murder of Emmett Till
14-year old Till was brutally beaten and shot to death four days after supposedly flirting with a white woman.
The two men guilty of the crime were Ron Bryant (the husband of the woman) and his brother-in law J.W. Millam.
The corpse was recovered from the Tallahatchie River, but was so disconfigured, that he could only be identified by a ring.
His mother requested the body be sent to Chicago and upon seeing her son she decided to have an open casket funeral.
The murderers were put on trial but found not guilty before an all-white trial, claiming the body could not be identified as Till's.
The results sparked outrage and the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement.
This letter was written while Martin Luther King Jr.
was in while on April 16, 1963. In the letter king is defending his nonviolent resistance to racism in the United States.
This letter played an important role in the 1960s civil rights movement.
About 250,000 people were involved in the march on Washington.
They wanted segregation in public schools to be removed,and they also wanted fair wages.
This is where Martin Luther King Jr. made his famous "i have a dream" speech.
The civil rights act forbade discrimination on the fact of sex and race when hiring, promoting, and firing.
At first the law makers did not put sex into the big.
But one women rights supporter added it in.
Many white Americans viewed Malcolm X has a menacing figure in the civil rights movement.
Malcolm X was a militant leader instead of his rival King who was a peaceful leader.
Malcolm wanted his followers to fight for their rights instead of making laws for something they should already have.
Malcolm X was assasinated on February 21, 1965.
He was killed by memebers of the nation of Islam.
Malcolm had left the Nation of Islam and went to a muslim pilgrimage to Mecca which made him decide to seek a peaceful protest to the civil rights movement.
Martin Luther King Jr. started the Selma to Montgomery March on March 25, 1960 he led thousands of people.
This March was a nonviolent protest to racism in the United States.
Many of the protesters were attacked or arrested by the police.
On April 4, 1968 Martin Luther King Jr was shot and killed when he had been standing on a balcony outside his hotel room.
Many African Americans were devastated and outraged by his death and they took to the streets in violents to show there grief.
The FBI caught James Earl Ray but many including the king family thought him innocent.
Four police officers were caught on video beating up an unarmed African American were not convicted of any wrong doing.
This verdict caused thousands of African Americans to take to the streets to show their outrage.
These riots lasted for a few hours with many cars, homes, and businesses destroyed.