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The Renaissance

World History
by

Patrick Floyd

on 2 January 2017

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Transcript of The Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance
The word renaissance means
rebirth
.
The rebirth was of the ancient
Greek and Roman worlds
.
The Italian Renaissance, which spread to the rest of Europe, occurred between
1350 and 1550
.
Italy of the Renaissance was largely an
urban
society.
A secular, or
worldly
, viewpoint developed in this urban society as increasing wealth created new opportunities for material enjoyment.
The Renaissance was also an age when the
power of the Church declined
, and society
recovered
from the
plagues and instability
of the Middle Ages.
The
well-rounded*
,
universal
person was capable of achievements in many areas of life.
For example, Leonardo da Vinci was a
painter
sculptor
architect
inventor
mathematician
scientist
The Italian States
The northern and central Italian city-states of
Milan, Venice, and Florence
played crucial roles in the Italian politics of the time.
They prospered from
trade
with the
Byzantine, Islamic, and Mediterranean
civilizations.
Milan:
The wealthy city of Milan was located in the north at the
crossroads
of the main
trade routes
from Italian coastal cities to the Alpine passes.
After the last Visconti family ruler died in 1447,
Francesco Sforza
conquered the city with a band of
mercenaries
– soldiers for hire.
He made himself
Duke of Milan
.
Like the Viscontis, Sforza built a strong centralized state with an efficient
tax system
that generated large revenues for the government.
Venice:
Venice was a link between
Asia
and
Western Europe
.
Traders
from all over the world came there.
A small group of
wealthy merchants
ran the city to serve their interests.
Due to its trade empire, Venice was an
international power.







Florence:
The republic of Florence dominated the
Tuscany
region.
In 1434,
Cosimo de’ Medici
took control of Florence.
He, and later his grandson Lorenzo de’ Medici, dominated Florence when it was the cultural center of Italy.
The Artistic Impact:
Painters & Sculptors
Renaissance artists sought to
imitate nature
in their works so viewers would see the reality of what they were portraying.
Masaccio’s
fifteenth-century frescoes are considered the first masterpieces of early Renaissance art (1400–1490).
A
fresco
is a painting done on wet plaster with water-based paints.
Unlike the flat figures of medieval painting, Masaccio’s figures have depth because he used the
laws of perspective
to create the illusion of
three dimensions
.
The
realism
of perspective became a signature of Renaissance painting.
The realistic portrayal of individual persons, especially the
human nude
, became one of the chief aims of Italian Renaissance art.
Famous Artists of the Renaissance
Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo mastered
realistic painting
, but his goal was to create idealized forms to capture the
perfection
of nature and the individual.
Donatello
modeled his figures on
Greek and Roman
statues
.
Among his most famous works is the realistic, freestanding figure of
Saint George
.
By age 25,
Raphael
was recognized as one of Italy’s greatest painters.
His famous fresco,
School of Athens
, reveals a world of balance, harmony, and order–the underlying principles of classical art.
Michelangelo
was an accomplished
painter
,
sculptor, and architect
known for his great passion and energy.
His paintings on the ceiling of the
Sistine Chapel
in Rome show the beauty of an idealized human being who reflects divine beauty.





Architecture
The architect
Filippo Brunelleschi
created a new architecture based on Roman classical buildings.
Renaissance architects also sought to reflect a
human-centered
world.
He also pioneered the use of
blueprints
for building structures
The Intellectual Impact:
Scholarship and Literature
Humanism
Humanism
was based on the
classics
, the literary works of ancient Greece and Rome.
Humanists studied the subjects that are now known as the
humanities
–for example,
poetry, philosophy, and history
.
Petrarch
(1400’s) did the most to foster humanism’s development.
He was known as the "
Father of Humanism
"
Erasmus
was another Humanist that questioned the Church
Renaissance writers wrote in
vernacular
(local) language instead of Latin.
Boccaccio -
Italy
Rabelais -
France
William Shakespeare
- England
Cervantes
- Spain
The Political Impact
"
The Prince
" by
Niccolò Machiavelli
is one of the most influential works on
political power
in the western world.
It concerns how to
get and keep
political power.
Machiavelli argued the prince’s attitude toward power should be based on understanding that human nature is
self-interested
.
A prince, therefore, should not act on
moral principles
but on behalf of the
interests
of the
state
.
Machiavelli was among the first to abandon morality as the basis for analyzing political activity.
"
The end justifies the means
"
His views influenced political leaders who followed.
The Economic Impact
Renaissance ideas spread quickly all over Europe.
Common
people improved their material conditions
Wealthy
people accumulated more luxury goods
The Intellectual Impact:
Science and Technology
Nicholas Copernicus
: Developed the
Heliocentric
(sun-centered) theory of the solar system.
Galileo Galilei
: Perfected the
telescope
. Confirmed theories proposed by Copernicus. His studies of motion laid the foundations of
physics.
The discoveries of Copernicus and Galileo
opposed
the teachings of
the Church.
This opposition led to charges of
heresy
by the Roman Catholic Church.
Johann Gutenberg:
Invented a
printing press
with movable type which allowed texts to be
mass produced
.
Prior to this, books were
copied by hand
.
Most people are familiar with the following artists through the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.
David
Pieta
The Sistine Chapel
"to be or not to be...dammit!"
Nicholas Copernicus
Galileo Galilei
His first telescope
The Solar System
Switch!!
Move it!!
Is it cold in here or is it just me?
Old School?
Or New School?
Mona Lisa
The Last Supper
Full transcript