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THEO 403 (Su '16) T07 - Islam (Part 1)

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by

Hartmut Scherer

on 11 July 2016

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Transcript of THEO 403 (Su '16) T07 - Islam (Part 1)

Islam
The Basics
Origin:
Muhammad (A.D. 570-632)
Essential beliefs and practices:
- the Qur'an
Major contemporary divisions:
Scriptures:
History of Religions
in 90 seconds
- further teachings of
Muhammad (Hadith)

Sunni:
(the majority)

base their authority on the consensus of the Muslims after Muhammad’s death
Shi'ite:
(various groups)

trace their origin to Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law
- Monotheism
- revelation of God (Allah)
through prophets and their
books


- judgment of human beings
based on their obedience
to God’s requirements.

The Religion of Submission to God
(Part 1)

~570 A.D.
Who was Muhammad?
birth of Mohammad
http://www.mapsofwar.com/images/Religion.swf
(click on link below)
How can a religion be both, a religion and a political system?
By being Islam, because true Islam functions within a community (the umma)
standardized version
Monotheism
folk version
Animism
What are the two sides of a religion in general / in Islam?
330 A.D.
Christianity had been officially tolerated
Roman Empire
375 A.D.
Christianity became the state religion
death of his father Abdullah
?
journey to Medina with
his mother
death of his mother Aminah
~578 A.D.
served as a shepherd boy
in Mecca
death of his grandfather
begins career as a prophet
?
married Khadijah
~605 A.D.
610 A.D.
end of Ramadan
The beginning of the Islamic calendar
622 A.D.
Muhammad and the Muslims migrate from
Mecca to Medina
receives visions
receives first revelation at
Mt. Hira
606 A.D.
he was a wealthy merchant; never
worshiped idols
96
(Mecca)

In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Recite in the name of your Lord who created -
created man from clots of blood.
Recite Your Lord is the Most Bountiful One,
who by the pen
taught man what he did not know.
Clots of Blood
God had chosen him as His messenger to all mankind
The message of the angel:
the mode of ablutions/washings (needed for ritual purity)
The angel taught him
the way of worshiping God
the conduct of prayer
revelations resume
613 A.D.
1) There is
only one God
to
whose will people must
submit
.
What were the two main points of Mohammad's message?
2) There will be a
day of judgment
when
all people will be judged in terms of
whether or not they have obeyed God.
630 A.D.
632 A.D.
Muhammad wins control
of Mecca.
Mecca becomes the center for pilgrimage
Death of Muhammad
Who will be Muhammad’s caliph, the successor?
Muhammad had no sons
644 A.D.
Sunni (the majority)
Caliphate of Uthman (member
of Umayyad clan)
632 A.D.
Abu Bakr becomes first caliph by
consensus
634 A.D.
Umar was poisoned
656 A.D.
~756 A.D.
Sunni leadership through the tribe of Umayyads (capitol: Damascus)
Shi'ite (various smaller groups)
632 A.D.
Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, claimed to be Muhammad's
successor
656 A.D.
Ali became caliph (not
for long)
killed by one
of his followers
Muhammad's father-in-law
Umar replaces Abu Bakr and
becomes
second caliph
rapid conquests in Egypt and Iran
- he also issued the
authoritative
edition of the Qur’an
.
Uthman died
Uthman's special contribution to Islam:
- he
collected
all of Muhammad’s
revelations;
did not enjoy the confidence of many people
Husayn succeeded
Ali (Hasan
was too sick)
Husayn died when he fought against the
Sunni Umayyads
Shi'ite line of succession requires:
- the
’Ilm
, a direct designation of
succession from his predecessor
- the
Nass
, the supernatural spiritual
knowledge to carry out the
prophetic leadership
successors are called
Imams
(spiritual and political leaders)
The three major Shi’ite groups:
Twelvers:
(Imamites)
Seveners:
(Ismailites)
Fivers:
(Zaidites)
the last imam, Muhammad al-Muntazar, disappeared; when he will return as the Mahdi, he will establish universal Islamic rule.
they recognize twelve imams in the line of succession;
they are the most radical theologically;
they believe that the true seventh imam was Ismail, the incarnation of Allah
make up a smaller body of Shi’ites and are less extreme than the other Shi’ite groups
Sunni and Shi'ite split permanently
What do all Shi’ites have in common?
All dispute over the
line of succession
All expect the
coming Mahdi
1
Sources and Image Credit
2)
Saudi Arabia - https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/Saudi_Arabia_2003_CIA_map.jpg
1)
Title adopted from David S. Noss, A History of the World's Religions (Prentice Hall, 2003), X.
Full transcript