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How and why does the employment structure of the UK change over time?
Transcript of How and why does the employment structure of the UK change over time?
employment structure of the UK is
like at the moment:
The UK has a low proportion of
people working in primary industry.
This is partly because of
mechanisation. Machinery has taken
over jobs in the primary sector.
Also, as primary resources have
become exhausted (e.g. coal) The UK
now imports a considerable amount of its non-renewable resources. The number of people employed in the secondary sector is falling. This is because fewer people are needed to work in factories as machines are taking over jobs. The tertiary sector is the main growth area. Most people work in hospitals, schools, offices and financial services. Also, as people have more free time and become wealthier there is a greater demand for leisure services. Therefore more jobs become available in the tertiary sector. Employment structure of the UK pie chart Changes through time How and why does the employment structure of the UK change over time? Primary Sector 1. New mechanics are created which reduces the need for farm workers because the machines can be used instead. This then means rural workers migrate to the urban areas and have to find other jobs
2. Raw materials are decreasing leading to loss of mining jobs
3. Rural depopulation of farmers in MEDCs. Workers prefer the better paid and less physically demanding jobs in the tertiary sector Secondary Sector 1. Industrialisation initially requires a large secondary workforce
2. Factory jobs eventually replaced by automation
3. Manufacturing industries increasingly move from MEDCs to NICs where land and labour are cheaper meaning people loose jobs in the MEDCs. Tertiary Sector 1. Large and growing informal service sector in urban areas of LEDCs as workers migrate from the countryside
2. As a country develops, demand grows for services such as health, education and tourism
3. Strong growth in MEDCs of jobs in the knowledge economy based on the processing of knowledge and information using telecommunications
4. Increase in producer services for manufacturing industry, e.g. market research The Tertiary Sector Does not produce anything but involves work in the service sector of the economy.
It includes activities associated with commerce and distribution (wholesaling and retailing) as well as banking, insurance, administration, transport, tourism, health, education and entertainment services The Secondary Sector The manufacturing of goods using the raw materials from primary industry. The Primary Sector Industry extracting natural resources from the ground or the sea
e.g. agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining and quarrying.
The output of such primary production often needs further processing. Line graph to show the UK employment structure from 1800 – 2000 Industrial revolution During the industrial revolution, more people were needed to build ships, work in steel making and with textiles. All of these jobs are found in the secondary sector. By 1900 over half of the workers in the UK were employed in secondary industries. 1900s Since 1900 mechanisation meant that less people were required to work on the land and in industry, as machines could carry out most of the work that people previously did. Foreign industries also became more competitive and imports such as coal became more affordable. As the availability of coal declined in the UK, and also became more expensive to extract more coal was imported. This led to a further decline in primary sector employment in the UK. 2000 The demand for work increased in schools, hospitals and retail industries. Many people left the rural areas in the search for jobs in the towns and cities. By the year 2000 over half of the UK workforce were employed in tertiary industries and only a small number were employed in primary industries. This has changed the work that people do, and also where they work. Quaternary industries are a relatively new concept, and it is only recently that they have been added to these figures. However it is becoming an important and growing sector in the UK as many firms want to carry out research and development for their products. Change in structure of Employment in UK:1978-2010 Here we can clearly see that over the last 30 odd years, goods handling jobs such as manufacturing, quarrying and agriculture have decreased a lot due to many reasons such as machines being created so less people needed to work in factories. This means more people migrate and have to work in information handling jobs such as education, financial and health care which is why we can see a increase in this area or the graph below. Labour Force Survey Here you can see there has been a large increase in services due to people loosing their jobs in the manufacturing sector because of new machines taking over their jobs. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/economic_change/industrial_change_medcs_video.shtml