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S1- Beginning of systole (end of diastole)
Mitral and Tricuspid valves closing
S2- Beginning of diastole (end of systole)
Aortic and Pulmonic valves closing
S3- Abnormal suggests increased atrial pressure related to congestive heart failure
S4- Suggests decreased ventricular function
Bruit-This is an adventitious sound or murmur (blowing sound) of arterial or venous origin; common in carotid or femoral arteries
- indicative of atherosclerosis
Gallop-An abnormal heart rhythm with three sounds in each cycle; resembles the gallop of a horse. (i.e., either S1,S2,S3 or S4,S1,S2 is heard during auscultation)
Systolic murmur-With regards to murmur or extra sounds, this one falls between S1 and S2. May indicate valvular disease (e.g., mitral valve prolapse or may normal
Diastolic murmur-With regards to murmurs or extra sounds, this one falls between S2 and S1. Usually indicates valvular disease
Thrill-An abnormal tremor accompanying a vascular or cardiac murmur; felt on palpation
Grade 1-Scale used to measure grade of heart murmur. This grade indicates the softest audible murmur
Grade 6-Scale used to measure grade of heart murmur. This grade indicates murmur is audible with stethoscope off the chest S2 best auscultated here