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Kenken Lachica

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The Educational Movements and Reforms in the Philippines
Committee on the Reform
of the Philippine
Educational System

Monroe Survey Report

Floren | Lachica | Naga | Urbina | Valcorza | Valmoria
EDUC 32 - Curriculum Development
06 July 2013
History of CRPES
- created in parallel with the Curriculum Reform Movement in USA (1960's)
- aim: to review the state of Philippine Education resulted after the
Swanson Survey in 1960
Swanson Survey
o Second educational survey on the Philippine Educational System of 1960
o joint project: International Cooperation Administration of the United States of
America + National Economic Council of the Philippines
o covered: Elementary Education, Secondary Education, Vocational Education, Teacher
Education, Organization, Administration, and Financing in the public schools

Five Areas of Concern
1. Quantity of educational services;
2. Quality of educational services;
3. Financing of the public schools;
4. Problem on cultural minorities; and
5. Problem caused by the adoption of foreign educational practices that do not
match the local conditions

Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE)
Education for All (EFA)

EDCOM Report of 1991 (Findings and Recommendations)
The Higher Education Act of 1994 (RA 7722)
National Competency-Based Teacher Standards

o establish positive relationship between low per capita investment in the education of the Filipino and their per capita income as a result of the low degree of their educational achievement

0 increase in budget appropriation for education to improve or rectify the unfavorable situation affecting Philippine education
Action Plan
1. overhaul the Philippine Educational System (Dr. Carlos P. Romulo, former ambassador and president of the United Nation’s’ Assembly and statesman, 1960)

2. formation of an all-Filipino commission to survey the entire Philippine Educational System (elementary to tertiary levels, both the public and private)

3. survey all phases of the educational process and include financing and administration of education and teacher training (Philippine Commission)

Actions Taken
1. reactivation of the National Board of Education (July 18, 1967) by the Philippine President through
R.A. 4367

2. creation of Standing committees to assist the NBE to improved the Philippine Educational System =

1. Reforms in Education
- revision of the curriculum and its organizational aspects;
- the increase in the credit units for the Rizal course (from 1 to 3 units,
collegiate level);
- approval of the use of the Filipino National Language as a medium of
instruction (elementary level); and
- reduction to 12 units Spanish (tertiary level)

2. Under the different committees of the NBE:
- revision of the teacher education program,
- elementary school curriculum,
- revisions of education objectives in all levels, and
- educational financing

- first systematic assessment of the Philippine school system, including:
 o school subjects o time allotment/subject
 o instructional materials o medium of instruction
 o school plant o other matters related to instruction

- accomplished by: Educational Survey Commission, headed by
Dr. Paul Monroe
1. visited schools in selected provinces observed teaching-
learning, and

2. administered and scored standardized achievement test to
more than 2,000 pupils and 1,077 classroom teachers

1. Centralized system of administration
2. Inadequacy of the elementary education to meet learner’s
3. Concentration of secondary school enrollment in the
academic curriculum detached from life preparation

4. High standards of instruction in the University of the
5. Satisfactory use of English in public schools
6, Lack of professional training of 95% of the teachers
7. Poor performance of private schools run by religious orders

- of President Ferdinand E. Marcos
- there is need to
assess and improve the educational system
to make it responsive to the
challenge of modernization
and the
goals of national development
- such improvement to be effective must be based on an
educated appraisal of the performance of the system
in general, with emphasis on
qualitative shortages
as pertain to deficient management structures, inability of the system to achieve the goals of human resources development, and the lack of mechanism for channeling resources
Objectives of the SPE
o analyze the performance of the educational system and its
relevance to development goals;
o recommend specific ways of improving the system, with emphasis
on developing policies and mechanisms for channeling resources;
o identify critical areas in Philippine education for more detailed
research and study

Chairman :
Hon. Onofre D. Corpuz, Secretary of Education
Vice-Chairman :

Hon. Placido L. Mapa, Jr.Director-General, Presidential
Economic Staff
Members :
Dr. Lino Q. Arquiza, Rev. Horacio de la Costa, S.J., Dr.
Miguel B. Gaffud, Mr. Sixto K. Roxas, and Dr. Abelardo G. Samonte
Functions and Responsibilities of the PCSPE
o Adopt and prescribe the guidelines that to govern SPE;
o Avail of the funds available to support the research activities of the
Department of Education;
o Solicit, assistance from government and non-government sources;
o Defray all expenses of the survey, including compensation of personnel; and
o Perform such other acts necessary and proper for the discharge of its
functions and responsibilities

shall act for the Commission in all administrative matters including the appointment of the Survey Director and the staff.
- Congressional Commission on Education chaired by Senator Angara and Congressman Padilla
o assessed scenario of education in the Philippines, using qualitative and quantitative methods of research
o Too little investment in education
o Disparities in access in education
o Low achievement
o High drop-out rate in less developed communities
o Special needs neglected
o Manpower mismatched

Findings (cont.)
o Limited ECE and NFE services
o Schooling length & class interruptions
o Irrelevance of education
o Incompetent training and instruction
o Ineffective and inefficient organization

o The prioritization of Basic Education
o Encourage Alternative Learning Modes
o The expansion and enrichment of technical/vocational
o Support for both public and private education
o Strengthening graduate education and research
o The search of new source of funds

Recommendations (cont.)
o Hire the best and most qualified professionals to become teachers and
o Make the vernacular and Filipino the medium of instruction for basic
o Restructuring the Department of Education
o Cost effective public college and university education with curricular
programs that are relevant to the communities they serve
o Greater access of poor children to all levels of education

A framework on the
seven domains of an ideal Filipino teacher
I. Social regard for learning
II. Learning
III. Diversity of
IV. Curriculum
V. Planning,
Assessing, and Reporting
VI. Community
VII. Personal growth
and professional
SEC. 2.
Declaration of Policy
The State shall protect, foster and promote the right of all citizens to affordable quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to ensure that education shall be accessible to all.
SEC. 3.
Creation of the
Commission on Higher
In pursuance of the abovementioned policies, the Commission on Higher Education is hereby created, hereinafter referred to as the Commission.
SEC. 4.
Composition of the Commission
The Commission shall be composed of five (5) full-time members.
Thereafter, the President shall appoint a Chairman of the Commission and four (4) commissioners.

SEC. 5.
Term of Office
The President shall appoint the full-time chairman and the commissioners for a term of four (4) years, without prejudice to one reappointment.

SEC. 8.
Powers and Functions of the Commission
o Formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on higher education;

o Formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on research;

o Recommend to the executive and legislative branches priorities and grants on higher education and research;

o Set minimum standards for programs and institutions of higher learning recommended by panels of experts in the field and subject to public hearing, and enforced the same;

o Monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and institutions of higher learning for appropriate incentives;

o Identify, support and develop potential centers of excellence in program areas needed for the development of world-class scholarship, nation building and national development;

o Recommend to the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) the budgets of public institutions of higher learning as well as general guidelines for the use of their income;

o Develop criteria for allocating additional resources such as research and program development grants, scholarships, and the other similar programs;

o Direct or redirect purposive research by institutions of higher learning to meet the needs of agro-industrialization and development;
SEC. 10.
The Higher Education
Development Fund
The Government’s contribution to the Fund shall be the following:
 (1) the amount of Five hundred million pesos
(P500,000,000) as seed capital;
 (2) the amount of Fifty million pesos
(P50,000,000) for the initial operation of the Commission;

(3) the equivalent of forty percent (40%)
annual share on the total gross collections of the travel tax;
 (4) the equivalent of thirty percent (30%)
share of the collections from the Professional Registration Fee; and

 (5) the equivalent of one percent (1%)
of the gross sales of the lotto operation of the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO).
SEC. 21. Effectivity
Approved on May 18, 1994.
Memorandum Circulation no. 141

Signed by
President Corazon C. Aquino
last December 4, 1991 at Manila City
Basic Goals
that education is a fundamental right for all people, women and men, of all ages, throughout our world;
that education can help ensure a safer, healthier, more prosperous and environmentally sound world, while simultaneously contributing to social, economic, and cultural progress, tolerance, and international cooperation;
that education is an indispensable key to, though not a sufficient condition for, personal and social improvement;
that traditional knowledge and indigenous cultural heritage have a value and validity in their own right and a capacity to both define and promote development;

Basic Goals (cont.)
that, overall, the current provision of education is seriously deficient and that it must be made more relevant and qualitatively improved, and made universally available;
that sound basic education is fundamental to the strengthening of higher levels of education and of scientific and technological literacy and capacity and thus to self-reliant development;
the necessity to give to present and coming generations an expanded vision of, and a renewed commitment to, basic education to address the scale and complexity of the challenge; and
the following: World Declaration on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs

EFA: An Expanded Vision
and a Renewed Commitment
The Purpose of EFA:
Article I - Meeting Basic Learning Needs
 o Every person - child, youth and adult - shall be able to benefit from educational
opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs.

 o Basic education is more than an end in itself. It is the foundation for lifelong learning
and human development on which countries may build, systematically, further levels and types of education and training.

Article II - Shaping The Vision
 - To serve the basic learning needs of all requires more than a recommitment to basic education as it now exists. What is needed is an "expanded vision" that surpasses present resource levels, institutional structures, curricula, and conventional delivery systems while building on the best in current practices.
- The realization of an enormous potential for human progress and empowerment is contingent upon whether people can be enabled to acquire the education and the start needed to tap into the ever-expanding pool of relevant knowledge and the new means for sharing this knowledge.

Article III - Universalizing Access
and Promoting Equity
- Basic education should be provided to all children, youth and adults.
- Should be equitable and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning.
- All gender stereotyping in education should be eliminated.
- The learning needs of the disabled demand special attention. Steps need to be taken to provide equal access to education to every category of disabled persons as an integral part of the education system.

Article IV - Focusing on Learning
 Whether or not expanded educational opportunities will translate into meaningful development - for an individual or for society - depends ultimately on whether people actually learn as a result of those opportunities, i.e., whether they incorporate useful knowledge, reasoning ability, skills, and values
Article V - Broadening the Means
and Scope of Basic Education
The diversity, complexity, and changing nature of basic learning needs of children, youth and adults necessitates broadening and constantly redefining the scope of basic education to include the following components:
• Learning begins at birth.
• The main delivery system for the basic education of children outside the family is primary schooling
• The basic learning needs of youth and adults are diverse and should be met through a variety of delivery systems
• All available instruments and channels of information, communications, and social action could be used to help convey essential knowledge and inform and educate people on social issues

Article VI - Enhancing the Environment
for Learning
 Learning does not take place in isolation. Societies, therefore, must ensure that all learners receive the nutrition, health care, and general physical and emotional support they need in order to participate actively in and benefit from their education.
Article VII - Strengthening
 National, regional, and local educational authorities have a unique obligation to provide basic education for all, but they cannot be expected to supply every human, financial or organizational requirement for this task. New and revitalized partnerships at all levels will be necessary.
EFA: The Requirements
Article VIII - Developing a Supportive
Policy Context
Supportive policies in the social, cultural, and economic sectors are required in order to realize the full provision and utilization of basic education for individual and societal improvement.
Article IX - Mobilizing Resources
- If the basic learning needs of all are to be met through a much broader scope of action than in the past, it will be essential to mobilize existing and new financial and human resources, public, private and voluntary.
- Special protection for basic education will be required in countries undergoing structural adjustment and facing severe external debt burdens. Today, more than ever, education must be seen as a fundamental dimension of any social, cultural, and economic design.

Article X - Strengthening Inter-
national Solidarity
Meeting basic learning needs constitutes a common and universal human responsibility. It requires international solidarity and equitable and fair economic relations in order to redress existing economic disparities. All nations have valuable knowledge and experiences to share for designing effective educational policies and programmes.
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