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Chapter 27 – The Planets and the Solar System

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Stacie Stonebraker

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 27 – The Planets and the Solar System

Chapter 27 – The Planets and the Solar System
II. Outer Planets
A. Jovian Planets – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

1. Much larger than terrestrials – smallest, Uranus, is 15 times more massive than Earth

2. No solid surfaces – their “surface” is an uppermost gas layer

3. Composed mainly of light elements H and He

4. All Jovian planets have ring systems

5. Planets have a 3-layered structure. The temperature and density of planets interiors increase with depth
III. Planetary Satellites (moons)
A. Satellites of Earth and Mars
1. Earth has one moon

2. Mars has 2 tiny moons, Deimos and Phobos

3. Phobos circles Mars 3 times a day

4. Mercury and Venus have no satellites

IV. Solar System Debris
A. Comets and TNOs (Trans Neptune Objects)
1. Comets described as dirty snowballs
a. Spend most of their time beyond the orbit of Neptune

b. Do not become visible until they travel inside Jupiter’s orbit

c. Has 2 parts, nucleus and tail

d. Tail always points away from the sun due to solar winds

e. Most famous comet is Haley’s, it appears once every 76 years – last visit 1986
I. The Inner Planets
A. Two Planetary Neighborhoods
1. Inner Planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
a. All have rocky crust
b. Dense mantle layers and cores
c. Because of their Earth like appearance they are also known as terrestrial planets

2. Outer Planets – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto
a. 1st four planets are called Jovian – or Jupiter-like
b. very large gaseous planets with no rocky crust
c. they have a low density due to size
d. the planets have ring systems
e. Pluto is an oddball – not dense enough to be terrestrial; too small to be Jovian

B. Mercury
1. Nearest planet to the Sun
2. Mercury's orbits the sun in 88 days
3. Smallest of terrestrial planets
4. Mercury surface resembles the moon’s surface because of heavy cratering.
5. Impact craters are the most prevalent land form.
6. Mercury rotates on its axis every 59 Earth days
7. Temperature – day 400°C because of nearness to the sun & long day; night drops to –200°C because heat leaves quickly ~ no atmosphere to retain heat

C. Venus – Earth’s Sister Planet – 2nd planet from the Sun
1. Near each other similar in diameter, mass and gravity
2. Venus has a very weak to non-existent magnetic field (unlike Earth)
3. Venus is the only planet to rotate from east to west
4. Rotates every 243 days
5. Orbits every 225 days
6. Thick yellow clouds make surface impossible to see
7. Magellan radar mapped it
8. Landforms include volcanic features and impact craters and a fault system
9. 80% of surface is covered with lava
10. It has yellow clouds made of sulfuric acid
11. Surface is hot due to greenhouse effect (high CO2 levels) causing surface to be 475°C
12. Visible from Earth in the morning or early evening – “evening star”
D. Mars – 4th planet from the Sun
1. 687 day orbit around the Sun
2. Axis tilted about the same as earth’s giving it seasons. However they are 2 times as long (the year is tiwce as lonhg)
3. Very thin atmosphere (1% of Earth’s) mostly CO¬2
4. Colder than Earth because father away
4. It has ice caps – thought to be water covered by frozen CO¬2
5. Spacecraft have photographed and landed on Mars surface
6. Largest known volcano in the solar system “Olympus Mons” that is 500 km tall (compared to Earth's tallest at 9km tall)
7. Has a canyon/valley system suggesting water once ran on its surface
8. Page 593, 5 Martian landings

B. Jupiter – 5th Planet from the Sun

1. 11.9 year orbit

2. 10 hour rotation ~faster than any other planet

3. Jupiter has the strongest known magnetic field

4. has 2 times more mass than all the other planets combined

5. radiates 2 times as much energy back into space as it receives from the sun ~it is believed that it comes from Jupiter's original heat of formation

6. Galileo probe entered Jupiter’s atmosphere in 1995 – found no thick clouds and higher than expected temperatures

7. Famous for its "Red Spot"

C. Saturn – 6th planet from the Sun
1. 30 year orbit

2. 10 hour rotation

3. lowest density of all planets, less than 1 ~if we had an ocean large enough, Saturn would float on it.

4. Saturn also radiates more energy than it receives from the sun, like Jupiter it has internal heat source

D. Uranus – 7th planet from the sun

1. 84 year orbit

2. 17.2 hour rotation

3. it’s rotational axis is tipped almost completely over ~it orbits the sun on its side
some believe that this is due to a collision with an Earth-sized mass

4. It’s magnetic field is not tipped

5. Turquoise color due to methane gas in atmosphere
E. Neptune – 8th planet (most of the time)

1. 165 year orbit

2. Rotation 16.1 hours

3. Neptune was found after astronomers predicted its location mathematically in 1846

4. It can have winds over 2000 km/hr

5. Becomes the 9th planet (for about 20 years) when Pluto is taken close to the Sun due to Pluto’s highly elliptical orbit. Pluto switch back to the 9th planet in 1999.

F. Pluto
1. 248 year orbit

2. smallest planet in the Solar System ~its diameter is about 2287 km, the distance between NYC and Houston TX
3. Its moon, Charon, is ½ its size

4. Most of its atmosphere is frozen. However, it thaws slightly when it nears the sun

**Was down-graded to a dwarf planet~ it is an object in the Kuiper belt, it has an ice/rock composition

B. Jupiter’s Moons

1. Jupiter has at least 63

2. Galilean moons – Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are the 4 largest discovered by Galileo

3. Discoveries made by the satellite Galileo

3. Io is geologically active

a. Nine active volcanoes

b. No signs of crater impacts

c. Galileo spacecraft found it has an iron core surrounded by a molten silicate rock

d. Heat on Io is caused by tidal forces from Jupiter

4. Europa
a. Surface is thought to be frozen water

b. It is thought liquid water may exist under the ice

c. few craters on surface suggesting recent geologic activity to erase meteor scars

d. possible life forms in water

5. Ganymede – the largest in solar system

a. Larger than Pluto and Mercury

b. Surface of ice

c. if it orbited the Sun and not Jupiter it would be considered a planet

6. Callisto – most heavily cratered object in the solar system
C. Saturn’s Moons
1. At least 31 moons

2. Largest is Titan

a. Only moon in solar system to have a substantial atmosphere

D. Uranus’s Moons
1. At least 27
2. 5 major moons are Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel, and Miranda
a. all lack atmosphere and are heavily cratered

E. Neptune’s Moons
1. At least 13 moons – Triton is the largest

B. Asteroids – solid rocklike masses
1. Uneven surface causes their brightness to change
2. Revolve same direction as planets
3. Most in asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter

C. Meteors and Meteoroids
1. Meteoroid – rock or ice fragment traveling in space, they differ from asteroids in that they are smaller in size

2. Meteor – when a meteoroid enters earth’s atmosphere and burns up “shooting star”

3. Meteor shower – occurs when earth passes into debris left by a comet that crossed earth’s path – very predictable, named after the constellation in the background.

D. Meteorite
1. A large meteoroid that survives earth’s atmosphere and strikes its surface
2. 3 types
a. stony – resemble earth’s rocks, mostly made of silicates ()5%
b. Irons – mostly iron 5%
c. Stony iron <1%
3. Most found in the ice of Antarctica

E. Impact Craters – bowl shaped depressions that remain after a meteor or other object strikes earth
1. Rare on earth because
a. The atmosphere burns up most meteoroids
b. Earth is geologically active
2. Best known is Barringer Meteor Crater in AZ formed about 49000 years ago. (1200 meters in diameter)

green asteroids are main belt
yellow asteroids cross mars orbit
red asteroids cross the Earth's orbits
for next clip, you can stop at 8 minutes if you like..
oldest crater is Vredefort, South Africa ~ 2 billion years old
Full transcript