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Temperature's Effect on the Rate of Photosynthesis

A Biology project investing the effect temperature has on the rate of photosynthesis in plants.

Nolan Calhoun

on 3 December 2012

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Transcript of Temperature's Effect on the Rate of Photosynthesis

Made by Nolan Calhoun,
Joey Parnell, and Kyle Flickinger Temperature's Effect on the Rate of Photosynthesis Pre-Experiment Research Materials Analysis Procedure Conclusion Topic: Photosynthesis
Class Question: What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Group Question: How does temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Hypothesis: The more high or the more low a temperature is, the less tyhe rate of photosynthesis.
Independent Variable:Temperature
Dependent Variable: Rate of Photosynthesis
Controlled Variables: Light, Amount of Water, time of lapse, solution, intensity and distance of light, number of spinach leaves, type of syringes
Control Group: 20 degrees Celsius solution
Experimental Groups: 10 degrees, 30 degrees, and 40 degrees Celsius solutions 6CO(sub2) + 6H(sub2)O + light ---> C(sub6)H(sub12)O(sub6) + 6O(sub2)
Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts
The first phase of photosynthesis is the light-Dependent React4ion, where plants capture light and use the electron transport chain to form NADP+ and NADPH
In the Light-Independent Reaction, carbon is converted into glucose; oxygen is also released 4 small beakers
spinach leaves
hole punch
sodium bicarbonate solution
dish soap
paper towels
thermometers First, we gathered four small beakers. Then, we punched holes, forty total, in spinach leaves. Next, we got four paper towels, and labeled them 10dC, 20dC, 30dC, and 40dC. For the 10dC solution, we put sodium bicarbonate in it and ice, then measured it until it cooled down to 10dC. We also added dish soap. Next, we filled the 20dC solution with sodium bicarbonate and dish soap. For the 30dC solution, we added sodium bicarbonate solution and dish soap and warmed it up in the microwave. We used a thermometer to measure the temperature. For the 40dC solution, we added sodium bicarbonate and dish soap. Then, we warmed it up in the microwave and measured it until it reached our desired temperature. After that, we put 10 spinach discs in a syringe. We closed the airspace by sucking in water, then shaking and swirling the syringe. Next, we tappedit and pushed the air out. We repeated this for every temperature solution and emptied them into their beakers. The point of this was to take out oxygen. We placed the beakers on their towels and placed them in front of a light. We turned the light on, and finally, collected data for an elapsed time of 15 minutes. Based on our data and research, we can determine that temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis in plants. Plants have an optimum temperature for photosynthesis, which varies. This is the temperature at which the rate is the fastest. If the temperature is decresed, then so is the rate of photosynthesis. If the temperature is increased, then the rate decreases. This would look like a negative parabola on a graph. The reason that the rate decreases when the temperature decreases is because the temperature is too cool for reactions to take place. The reason that the rate decreases when the temperature increases is because the leaves cannot get the reactants H(sub2)O and CO2 because the stoma has closed. The stomas were open in the leaves that rose to the top, though at different rates. (A stoma is a pore used for gaseous exchange, in botany). If temperatures increase, the plant can develop alternative pathways to increase the rate of photosynthesis. C4 and CAM plants overcome the likeliness of the RuBisCO enzyme that wastefully fixes oxygen rather than carbon dioxide in photorespiration. So, again, the e higher or lower the temperature as compared to the optimum, the lower the rate of photosynthesis. After we conducted our experiment, we came up with the following results. In the 10dC solution, 1 disc rose to the top. There is no 50 floating point. In the 20dC solution, all 10 rose to the top after 15 minutes. The 50 floating point was 8 minutes. in the 30dc solution, 3 discs rose to the top. there was no 50 floating point. In the 40dc solution, all 10 discs rose to the top after 15 minutes. the 50 floating point was about 4 minutes. Using this data to analyze our question, temperature does indeed affect the rate of photosynthesis. from our data, we have determined that the higher the temperature is, the higher the rate of photosynthesis. however, upon further research, we learned that plants have an optimum temperaturefor photosynthesis,which is about 25degreescelsius. any lower, and the rate would decrease. for there to be an increase in the rate of photsynthesiswhile there is an increased temperature, alternative pathways (ex c4 and cam) would have to be developed. This is because the stoma closes and water cannot get in, or co2. so, an error was probably made in the 30dc solution, since the 20dc and 40dc both had 10 risen. This would also meanthat the optimum temperature for this type of spinach would most likely be higher than 25degreescelsius. using our data to analyze our hypothesis, and research, we can determine that, excluding alternative pathways, it is correct. However, since we had a small sample group, this was not proven. # leaves floating Time (min) Effect of Temperature on Photosynthesis
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