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Transcript of Inclusion
Teacher organisation and routines
Some students, especially those with a learning difficulty or disability, may have difficulty in demonstrating what they know/how much they know (Westwood, 2011).
In order to modify assessment:
- Tasks can be simplified or shortened
- More time can be given
- Some assistance can be provided
- Assessment can be administered in a quieter environment
- Short breaks during assessment tasks can be permitted
- Assessments can be presented in different formats
- Objectives can be modified:
*All student will
… master the key concepts.
*Some students will
…master more than the key concepts.
*A few students may
…achieve higher-order objectives through extension activities (Westwood, 2011).
What is inclusion/inclusive education?
is described as “sharing”, “belonging” “everyone together” and “nobody segregated in society”. (Chambers, 2012) It is the act of “engaging people with disabilities in all our daily activities – school, work, home and in the community” (Inclusion Network, 2006).
is an approach to education free from discriminatory beliefs, attitudes and practices. It is the act of children with or without disabilities, learning together with appropriate support to ensure all students in the classroom participate to their maximum ability.
SIMPLY: EQUAL HUMAN RIGHTS!
What does inclusion look like?
* Students are actively engaged
* Can make some choices about their education
* Learning is in small groups or collaborative partnerships
* Social interaction is imperative
* Classroom environment is welcoming and actively supportive
* Making adaptations to ensure full involvement
What are the benefits?
Everyone wants to feel belonging, acceptance and included.
By Haylee, Kara, Megan and Tahlia
CONCLUSION and QUESTIONS
A strategy teachers can employ to adapt pedagogy to suit all students’ needs and abilities, thus making the classroom more inclusive, is known as differentiated instruction (Westwood, 2011).
Differentiation should be less about changing the curriculum and more about providing multiple pathways and additional support to achieve learning outcomes (Westwood, 2011).
Some qualities of inclusive teachers include:
- Creative problem solving
- Understanding of the skills students need
- Catering for interests
- Differentiating curriculum and assessment
- Accommodating diverse learning styles and rates of learning
- Ensuring support needed to succeed is given
- Maintaining high and realistic expectations
- Valuing strengths
- High quality instructional ability
- Effective collaboration skills
- Responsibility for all students
There are many policies and legal acts that teachers must comply with. Some of the significant policies and acts relating to inclusion are:
- Equal Opportunity Act (1984)
- Social Justice Policy (1993)
- School Education Act (1999)
- Disability Discrimination Act (1992)
- Disability Standards for Education (2005)
-The only reason that schools may deny access is if complying with the necessary accommodations would cause unjustifiable hardship to the provider (e.g. financial hardship or inability to provide appropriate programs)(Chambers, 2013b).
Materials and Resources
Resource materials are an essential tool to have when creating an inclusive environment in the classroom. Resources don't need to be expensive to enable the student access to full engagement within lessons. Examples are:
- modified texts, adapted worksheets, notes, computer software with large, simple and clear print
- print materials such as assignment cards, study notes and independent learning contracts
- equipment such as blocks for counting in maths, calculator assistance or writing materials to assist students
- Use of visuals, diagrams, illustrations and concept cartoons can assist students with reading difficulties
- Ipad apps to aid students in developing skills in all learning areas
boosts self esteem and confidence
improves the general behaviour
contentment in life
Take it from a teacher
Take it from a parent
Chambers, D. (2013a).
ED2095 Inclusive education: An introduction.
Chambers, D. (2013b).
ED2095 Inclusive legislation and model of education support policies and acts.
National Center on Universal Design for Learning. (n.d.).
UDL guidelines: Provide multiple means of action and expression.
Retrieved from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines/principle2
Westwood, P. (2011).
Commonsense methods for children with special needs
(6th ed.). London: Routledge Falmer
Inclusion Network, 2006
The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) aims to remove barriers to learning.
Multiple means of expression is one feature of the UDL that suggests students should have options in the way they present their work (Westwood, 2011).
- Student may not be expected to produce the same amount or quality of work
- Students may have choices about the way they present the evidence of their learning.
E.g. oral, written, creation, illustration or digital formats (Westwood, 2011).
For resources and the latest research see: http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines
To differentiate teaching procedures and processes some of the following teaching strategies may be used:
• Explicit/direct instructions or different forms of instruction.
• Re-teaching for harder concepts and information.
• Simpler language and more examples.
• Make sure that questions students are asked in the lesson, are at an appropriate level for them.
• Closer monitoring of some students while working.
• Use motivations to keep the students engaged and on task.
• Give the students praise and descriptive and helpful feedback.
• Give more assistance when needed.
• Provide more opportunity for practice, maybe by differentiated homework.
• Provide extension work for the more able students, such as, independent work or harder work.
Evidence suggests that teachers are better at modifying teaching strategies than modifying the content of the curriculum. This is because they find teaching process modifications more natural and easy to put into their own teaching style. Skilled teachers would automatically give extra when needed and extension work for those who are able.
Pace is the rate at which the classroom moves. Such as, the pace at which discussions are held and information is presented. The speed at which students work and assessments need to be completed can be accustomed to the individual student. More time can also be given for a student to answer a question.
Amount of assistance
Teachers can control and decide how much help each student receives. Teachers can also influence how class members assist each other.
"The benefits of inclusive education are different for individual students and can include academic, social/emotional and life skills development. Social/emotional benefits are obvious and the most difficult skills to develop without inclusive experiences. As these skills are so important, inclusive learning experiences need to be carefully planned to ensure positive outcomes for all students involved. Special event experiences at school such as assemblies, carnivals, etc can develop a sense of community and citizenship."
- Megan Lee (Education Support Teacher, 24th August 2014).
"I have had a very positive journey with my special needs son being mainstreamed, his inclusive education has been the best decision I have made as a parent. He has been in an inclusive learning environment from year 1 upwards, he is now 11. It has benefited him on a social level mostly having great role models to learn from. He is now no longer withdrawn, very confident and has a sense of belonging. It has been so refreshing seeing him grow, he has been treated with respect and compassion from all of his peers who have also been very supportive."
- Marnie Pes (Mother of a child with special needs, 24th August 2014).