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Tanner McMillen

on 9 November 2016

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Transcript of Bridges

By Tanner McMillen
A bridge is a structure carrying a road, path, railroad, or canal across a river, ravine, road, railroad, or other obstacle.
What are Bridges?
Roman Bridges: 1st- 2nd Century AD
Some of the first bridges ever built were from the Romans
Romans built bridges that carried running water into their cities, called aqueducts
Romans perfected the arches during their time period and used them on all of their aqueducts
Aqueducts were built over rivers and valleys
Some of the aqueducts reached 110 feet wide and 210 feet above ground level
These aqueducts were built at a gradual slope into the city, so the water would not stop running
These bridges would not been possible without the Romans perfecting the use of concrete
History of Bridges
Inhabited bridges: 12th - 16th century
One of the greatest contributions to the Middle Ages was building bridges with houses on them
Inhabited bridges were built in considerable number during this period
France had 35 of them
Most of these bridges were built with stone foundations with pointed arches
Most famous inhabited bridge:
London Bridge- built between 1176 and 1209
History of Bridges
In 1779 the worlds first Iron bridge was built
This bridge spanned over 100 feet
Built by Abraham Darby
Constructed by casting the huge curved ribs seen on the bridge
History of Bridges
Types of Bridges
There are many types of bridges in the world today.
Arch bridges:
These bridges use arches as a main structural component
Arches are always located below the bridge
They are made with one or more hinges, depending on the type of load they carry
Types of Bridges
Beam Bridges:
Very basic type of bridges that are supported by several beams of various shapes and sizes
They can be inclined or v-shaped

Types of Bridges
Truss Bridges:
A truss bridge is a very popular bridge
This bridge uses diagonal mesh of posts above the bridge
Two most common designs:
King post (two diagonal posts supported by a single vertical post in the center)
Queen Post (two diagonal posts, two vertical posts and a horizontal post that connects two vertical posts at the top)
Types of Bridges
Cantilever bridges:
Similar in appearance to the arch bridges
They support their load through diagonal bracing
They often use a truss formation both above and below the bridge
Types of Bridges
Tied arch bridges:
Also similar to arch bridges, but they transfer their load differently
They transfer the weight of the bridge load to the top cord that is connected to the bottom cords in the bridge foundation
Also called bowstring arches or bowstring bridges
Types of Bridges
Suspension bridges:
These bridges use ropes or cables from the vertical suspender to hold the weight of bridge deck and traffic
Most famous one is the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
Types of Bridges
Cable-stayed bridges:
These bridges use deck cables that are directly connected to one or more vertical columns
Cables are usually connected to the columns in two ways:
Harp design
Fan design
What Materials are Used in Bridges
Bridges have been built for centuries and have been made of many different materials
Materials used in bridges
Reinforced and pre-stressed concrete
How Bridges are Built
Bridges have been built with many different methods over the years
There are a lot of different examples of how bridges were constructed.
One of the best examples is the Golden Gate Bridge
3. http://travelinnate.com/london-bridge/
4. http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/iron-bridge/
5. http://www.johnweeks.com/bridges/pages/b03.html

6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beam_bridge
7. http://www.atlaso.com/bridge.htm
8. https://gabrielarwilson.wordpress.com/tag/cantilever-bridge/
9. http://www.ilight-tech.com/hastings-bridge/
10. http://pabook2.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/Suspension.html
11. http://inhabitat.com/longest-cable-stayed-bridge-in-africa-lit-up-with-philips-leds/

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