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Kendall's Digestive System Case Study

This presentation includes information on how the body digests different types of food such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Also there will be a case study about what happens when you eat raw pork!

kendall gunderson

on 30 April 2010

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Transcript of Kendall's Digestive System Case Study

Double click anywhere & add an idea Body Digestion Carbohydrates Fats Proteins The body begins digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth. The enzyme, amylase, is present in our saliva and it starts to break down the more complex carbohydrates into the simpler types. Once digestion reaches the stomach enzyme activity continues but slows down considerably once glands release digestive acids into the stomach.

Moving along to the small intestine, another type of amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the first section of the small intestine called the duodenum. This breaks down carbohydrates into simpler sugars such as maltose, lactose, and sucrose. As the carbohydrate moves further into the intestine, maltose, lactose, and sucrose are chopped into smaller bits from the enzymes maltase, lactase, and sucrase.

The simple sugars are eventually converted into glucose and absorbed through the intestinal walls into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream the glucose is taken to the liver where it is stored as glycogen or distributed to cells throughout the body for energy.

The first step in digesting fat is to dissolve it into the watery content of the intestine. The fat is then dissolved into tiny droplets by bile acids produced from the liver, allowing pancreatic and intestinal enzymes to break large fat molecules into smaller ones.

Fatty acids and cholesterol make up the smaller molecules. The fatty acids and cholesterol combine with the bile acids which helps these molecules move into the cells of the mucosa.

Once in these cells, the small molecules are changed back into large ones, most of which pass into vessels called lymphatics near the intestine. These small vessels carry the reformed fat to the veins of the chest, and the blood carries the fat to storage depots throughout the body. Meat, eggs, and beans consist of huge molecules of protein and before they can be used to build and repair body tissues they must first be digested by enzymes.

The digestion of the swallowed protein is started by an enzyme in the juice of the stomach. Moving to the small intestine, the breakdown of the large protein molecules into small amino acids is made possible by several enzymes from the pancreatic juice and the lining of the intestine.

These amino acids can be absorbed through the small intestine into the blood and the distributed to all parts of the body to build walls and other cells. Intracellular Digestion vs. Extracellular Digestion Intracellular digestion is where the breaking down of macromolecules takes place within the cell. Extracellular digestion is where macromolecules are broken down in places outside the cell.

An example of intracellular digestion is an amoeba within the cell wrapping around a food molecule and breaking it down. An example of extracellular digestion is when macromolecules are broken down by enzymes which are outside the cell. Case Study Why did Kim tell her brother he was going to be sick after eating the raw pork? Kim told her brother that he would be sick because eating raw pork can cause trichinosis. It is a parasitic disease where the larvae of a species of roundworm, commonly known as Trichinella, infect raw pork.

Effects of trichinosis include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and abdominal discomfort. Then following the first symptoms come headache, fever, chills, cough, eyes welling, aching joints and muscle pain, itchy skin, and constipation.

Serious infection may cause patients to experience difficulty breathing and coordinating movements, with the most serious effect being death. What may have caused James to be sick according to the symptoms? James’ symptoms of having a mild fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps may have been caused by trichinosis which is caused by eating raw pork.

In trichinosis, abdominal discomfort symptoms usually occur 1-2 days after the infection, and diarrhea and fever are also included in the first symptoms of the infection. Explain the effects this would have on his body. The larvae of the Trichinella are found in cysts, or small capsules, in the meat. When James ate the raw pork, his stomach juice dissolved the cysts and therefore the larvae were released.

The effects of the releases larvae are abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, fever, and vomiting. Following the first stage of release, larvae will eventually grow and mate in one’s bowels. Female worms produce more larvae that go from the bowel into one’s blood.

The larvae then move from the blood vessels into the muscles to form new cysts. The effects of this stage are headaches, fever, chill, muscle aches, itching, eye swelling, rash and constipation.
Sources CarbSmart

Anne Collins

The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)
April 2008

Biology Questions and Answers


Utah Department of Health

University of Illinois Medical Centre at Chicago
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