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Alexander The Great Part 1
Transcript of Alexander The Great Part 1
bunnies. It's funny because you think I'm joking. Yes... Today we speak of a young man who left his mark on history, and became known as "Great". Today we speak of none other than... Alexander The Great Our tale begins in Macedonia... Before our "hero" is born... Macedonia Macedonia (Macedon) was looked upon by the majority of Greece as barbaric. They were seen as "illiterate, stupid, and uncivilized." Never before had
a serious threat to
Greece. Along comes a Spider Philip II of Macedon was king of Macedonia in 359 BC, roughly 50 years after the Peloponnesian wars. Though we do not have the time
to get in to it too much, he had a
fascinating life himself. Highlights: - He grew up in Thebes, where he was being held hostage. - There he received a military and diplomatic education - Also became fascinated with the Sacred Band of Thebes. Upon Return to Macedonia - Managed to unite Macedonia, and create an enormous, well trained army. But how...? Gold Mines Macedonia had in its control many gold mines Which Philip used to fund a massive army. I like gold Me too! This made Greece worried How did Macedonia get such a large army? How did these savages organize themselves? More importantly... What are they going to do with it? Macedonian Phalanx Very deadly Efficient against cavalry and infantry Was similar to the Greek Phalanx with two major differences: 1. They wore lighter armor, making it easier to move and carry their weapons. 2. Their spears were bigger. giggity They were just over 15 feet long Back to Philip II He proposed to a young woman named Olympias. A marriage. Cute right? Not particularly... Philip II had many wives. 1 new wife per new
campaign Alexander's Parents Olympias Philip II - Brilliant tactician
- Brilliant diplomat
- Brilliant soldier - Very driven
- Power hungry
- Associated with Gods Surprise Maybe Parent Zeus The marriage is consummated and myths begin to arise some historians claim they saw a snake in bed with Olympias. In Greek mythology Zeus is occasionally depicted as a serpent. Others claim that during the consummation Olympias was struck by a lightning bolt. Looking at her...I am 100% convinced she could take a lightning bolt. Ha! My baby However, many of these histories were written after Alexander's conquests. Which means... Well... everyone loves a good story. Alexander - Born in 356 BC - His father, Philip II, focuses on his conquest of Greece - His mother concerns herself with ensuring that it is Alexander who gets the throne after Philip... Childhood - Education of a nobleman - Military
- Academics - Gets a personal education from Aristotle - We are told his favorite author is Homer "He slept with a copy
of the Iliad and a dagger
under his pillow." Made a Friend Hephaestion Brownie points for
who can name that
actor? The two became very close.
This worried Alexander's
parents, who thought that Alexander may be a homosexual. Solution: Bring in high class
call girls to show Alexander
what he should be up to. Macedonian Expansion Battle of Chaeronea 338 BC Alexander (18) Macedonians vs. What is left of Greeks Macedonian Phalanx vs. Athenians and Thebans Sacred Band Sacred Band - 300 Theban Elite soldiers - Also lovers. They fight, eat, and sleep with each other. - Why is this important? Why does it strengthen them? (supposedly) - Philip had grown up idolizing this band. Athenians, Thebans, Persians, oh my! The Persians were funding the Thebans and Athenians with weapons and armor. Why? They feared if Greece fell, Macedonia would set its gaze on Persia next. Alexander's Opportunity Alexander was to participate in this battle. He was put in charge of the "companions". A group of elite horsemen Alexander Philip Athens Thebes "retreat" Victory! So with Alexander's help, the Macedonians win. Significance: - gaining trust of the army. He's like his father. - future looking bright Philip II Philip continued to act as he usually did, which meant: something of mild importance
happened? I need another wife! So he got one. A 20 year old woman named Cleopatra. Philip II was over 50 at the time. This posed a problem for Olympias and Alexander. If Cleopatra were to sire a son with Philip II, he would be the new heir to the throne. The Plot Thickens A banquet is thrown. Philip II has just taken over Greece, and wants to be seen as an amiable leader. There is music, different performances, food, entertainment, and more. Something happens. One of Philip's bodyguards, a man named Pausanias, stabs Philip II, killing him. Possible Motives - Had been snubbed by Philip II and wanted revenge - Alexander and Olympias had paid him to do it Either way, it didn't look good for Alexander. Many people believed either he and/or his mother were behind the murder. King Alexander is proclaimed King of Macedon at the age of 20 The first thing he had to do was secure his throne. He did this by killing, of having anybody who had a potential claim to the throne, killed. Preparations for War After having consolidated his throne, and power over his kingdom (including Greece), Alexander prepared for war with Persia. To get to Persia, he needed to have his army of 40,000+ soldiers, cross the Hellespont. Crossing right here There were 2
problems... 1. Weather Strong Winds 2. Open to attack from
Persian fleet Long story short - They were lucky. And the weather was fine The Persian fleet was busy in Egypt The War Begins!!! Battle of Granicus - Darius knew that Alexander was coming. But he didn't think of Alexander as being much of a threat. - He sent an army, but he didn't bother going himself. Instead he sent one of his generals to face Alexander at the battle of Granicus. Alexander Persians Battle Won!!! Significance: - First major battle in Persia a victory - Confirms what the Oracle had told him (he's invincible) - Sent a lot of armor / weapons back to Athens as a gift from Alexander Alexander continued to conquer the Persian coast This was to keep a steady
supply line, and deny Persia
naval outposts. Notable Stops Gordium Gordian Knot "Whoever breaks the knot shall be the ruler of ALL of Asia" Siege of Tyre Tyre was an Island that would not yield to Alexander Alexander harassed the island with ships but still it would not yield. So he did the unthinkable. He attached the island to the land. Used "siege warfare" Took the island, and, displeased at what he had to do to conquer it, sold everyone in to slavery Battle of Issus Another consequence of Issus Darius left members of his family behind. Alexander now held them as prisoners. Darius III Darius III was unhappy that - Alexander had his family
- Alexander was doing so well So he offered him a peace treaty. - Lands Alexander had
- 10,000 talent ransom
for his family "Since it is I, who is king of Asia, it is I alone who makes decisions about territorial divisions." Darius Makes another offer - All territory up to the Euphrates - A ransom of 30,000 talents for his family, triple what he had offered before. - Invited Alexander to marry his eldest daughter, joining the family. Alexander refused Journey Continued Alexander continued his journey south, conquering as he went. Would leave men behind to run the outposts and cities to ensure they had a safe line behind them. He was slowly making his way to Egypt Tyre Proved to be Monumental On the way to Egypt, many cities surrendered to Alexander without a fight. He had a reputation now, and had shown what would happen to those who didn't co-operate. Gaza was the
exception. It was
taken by force. How does this relate to today's class?