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Criollo Society - 18th Century Puerto Rico
Transcript of Criollo Society - 18th Century Puerto Rico
15th - 18th centuries Status check:
Puerto Rico in the 1500's society based on agriculture
reduced population due to rampant deaths among natives, as well as emigration - why?
gold production, which had been the leading industry, decreases due to depletion and lack of workers
in order to solve the economic problem caused by the scarcity of gold, the colonists look to new natural resources to cultivate But where would they find laborers? Africa in the 1500's society based on agriculture
grouped by clans, chieftains, or kingdoms that traded with other parts of their continent
slavery becomes a consequence of conflicts between the clans and kingdoms of Africa, as well as piracy
Europeans believed that Africans were free of faith and could easily be converted to Christianity
The Europeans also believed that they were used to the conditions of slavery because it already existed in their continent Let's make a prediction! How can we connect these two ideas? Solutions to the economic crisis in PR
Sugar cane becomes a potential solution to the scarcity of gold
African slaves arrive on the island to make up for the lost natives
1st sugar plantation established in Aguada by Tomas Castellon (about 1522) slavery Spanish estate owners
and criollos Land Owners ("hateros") mestizos, cowboys, artisans Slaves Oligarchy forms Cimarrones: some slaves escaped and joined tainos to form rebel groups What consequences could these rebel groups have on the colonists? Additional challenges of the 16th and 17th Century:
piracy increases in the Caribbean
protection of the ports
Spanish monopoly on products
contraband Status Check:
Puerto Rico in the 18th Century low population - why?
to compensate, the colonists foster immigration from the Canary Islands
contraband in the Caribbean: trading with the Lesser Antilles and Spanish rivals
Spain issues "patentes de corso" (carte blanche; letter of marque)
Miguel Henriquez What can you infer about
Miguel Henriquez based on this picture? Social Changes:
18th Century immigrants asked government to disband the "hatos" (cattle ranches)
Q: Who would this benefit? Why? A: Disbanding the hatos ended up benefiting everyone because the peasants received the land they wanted, while the hateros no longer had to pay a tax that consisted in taking cattle to the city - a dangerous journey). Unexpected Result of the dissolution of the hatos: Coffee takes off! Problem: Contraband What is a possible solution? Hint: A New European Mentality: The Enlightenment Governments were responsible for the well-being and happiness of the governed.
Focus on logic and reasoning
Advances in military, science and technology How might the Enlightenment be similar to Humanism? How might it be different? Alejandro O'Reilly Field Marshall who visited the island to analyze the military
Completed La Fortaleza, El Morro and San Cristobal, which had been left incomplete due to economic issues. also created the National Guard in order to protect the island
created new towns How can you tell Alejandro O'Reilly was influenced by the Enlightenment? The Jibaro:
Puerto Rico's New Identity The jibaros did not enjoy freedom of religion, but they found ways to express their beliefs
the distance between parishes allowed people to worship at home
development of carving saints out of wood Jose Campeche Some painters created work for parishes and churches criollos landowners peasants slaves bishops priests government workers How does this social structure compare with that of the taino culture?