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Children & the world of play
Transcript of Children & the world of play
• Non-serious activities in which children shape their behaviour in their own individual and distinctive ways
• It is not necessarily related to reality
• Play assists children in development of their sense of self and the world
• It is crucial for the development of language, social skills physical skills and cognitive functioning.
Implications for teaching
Think, pair, share
Think back to a time when you learned something through play. Where were you? Did the play involve social interaction or were you alone?
Mini Group Discussion
You will be given a single key focus that is appropriate for Early Stage 1.
Present this as an activity that actively promotes children’s engagement and understanding of the concept through play.
What is play?
(White, Hayes & Livesey, 2010)
By: Alana Salvador, Katrina Almazar & Rachel Cefai
Types of children's play
FUNCTIONAL (2-3 yrs)
Simple repetitive movements. e.g. clapping, shaking a rattle
CONSTRUCTIVE (3-4 yrs)
Involves manipulating objects in order to build something. E.g. cutting & pasting, building a tower
PRETEND/SYMBOLIC (6-7 yrs)
Allowing an object/person represent something it is not. E.g. pretending to be parents, pretending to be characters from books, movies or television
GAMES WITH RULES (10-11 yrs)
Games with rules. E.g. board games, tip
Five modes of play
• Solitary Play – play pursued alone
• Onlooker Play – watching others play
• Parallel Play – pursuing like activities without interacting
• Associative Play – children share ideas/materials in pursuit of a shared goal
• Cooperative Play – children are given particular roles in pursuit of a shared goal
• Piaget – play allows children to practice newly acquired skills and concepts so that they are not lost.
• Vygotsky – allows children to think about meanings separate from the objects they represent (abstract thinking), allows social learning, allows self control, private speech, scaffolding, etc.
• Sociocultural – play is a cultural activity and interpretation helping children make meaning of their world.
• Chaos – play has chaotic capacities because it is symbolic , meaning making, dynamic, connectionist and creative. It therefore helps children function in our complex, changing and chaotic world.
(Grusac & Lytton, 1988)
(Wyver & Spence, 1995)
(Johnson, Christie & Wardle, 2005)
Play types & theories
Play provides a meaningful and enjoyable platform for children to engage in cognitive learning
- Play supports the development of memory, thinking and logical reasoning
- Play enhances attention, creativity and problem solving
- Self-directed play enables children to construct their own learning (Catron & Allen, 2008)
• Piaget’s cognitive development theory focused on how children use objects for different purposes and the relationship between play and exploration
• Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasised social interaction, particularly in make-believe play, in developing children’s cognitive development
Play provides an environment for language development:
- Role-play provides an environment for children to explore different aspects of verbal communication
- Children learn to use different language to suit different play roles
- Children refine their vocabulary and grammar skills through teacher modelling and social interaction
• Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasised the importance of language and communication in developing children’s cultural awareness (White, Hayes & Livesey, 2010).
Physically active play develops children’s competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform various physical activities
- Hand-eye/foot-eye coordination
- Locomotor skills
- Nonlocomotor skills
- Body management and control (Catron & Allen, 2008)
• Piaget's cognitive development theory emphasises the importance of active learning environments and learner participation (White, Hayes & Livesey, 2010)
Social & emotional development
Play is crucial to the development of social competence, as it has been found to contribute to improvements in social skills, social knowledge, friendships, self-esteem, emotional regulation and social acceptance (White, Hayes & Livesey, 2010).
• According to Erickson's psychosocial theory, make-believe play allows children to:
- Practise new social skills
- Understand cultural roles
- Developing social competence and understanding of social rules
- Integrate accepted social norms into their own personalities (Frost, Wortham & Reifel, 2008)
(Brock, Dodds, Jarvis & Olusoga, 2009)
(Van Hoorn, Nourot, Scales & Alward, 2011)
(White, Hayes & Livesey, 2010)
Play & learning development
• The role of the teacher as a facilitator – structure the environment to meet the children’s needs and capitalise on their interests
• Partnerships with parents – provide support, solicitation and frequent sharing of information
• Classroom management and guidance – develop appropriate limits on behaviours and encouraging the use of problem-solving skills
• Classroom design and outdoor play environments – safe and carefully planned to enhance total development and provide a variety of learning opportunities
• Creative-play curriculum design activities – adaptations made to meet the needs of individual differences
• Development of the whole child throughout a balanced day e.g. activities that are indoor/outdoor, quiet/active, adult-initiated/child-initiated, individual/small
• Process-oriented experiences – the child explores and directs the play while the teacher consistently supports and provides
• Open-ended activities – creating a level of achievement and success for each child
• Developmental assessment and child observations – cycle of evaluation, goal setting and activity planning
(Catron & Allen, 2008)
(Catron & Allen, 2008)
Brock, A., Dodds, S., Jarvis, P., & Olusoga, Y. (2009). Born to play: Babies and toddlers playing. In Perspectives on play: Learning for life (pp. 94-119). Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited.
Campbell, C., & Jobling, W. (2012). Science in early childhood. Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press.
Catron, C.E., & Allen, J. (2008). Creative-play curriculum model. In Early childhood curriculum: A creative play model (4th ed., pp. 25-39). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Giacopini, E. (2008). Enhance the Curriculum with Materials. In D. Curtis & M. Carter (Eds.), Learning Together with Young Children: A curriculum framework for reflective teachers. St Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.
Commonwealth of Australia. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Retrieved from http://foi.deewr.gov.au/system/files/doc/other belonging_being_and_becoming_the_early_years_learning_framework_for_australia.pdf
Frost, J.L., Wortham, S.C., & Reifel, S. (2008). Play in the preschool years. In Play in child development (3rd ed., pp. 140-153). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Johnson, J.E., Christie, J.F., & Wardle, F. (2005). Theories of play. In Play, development and early education (pp. 32-54). Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited.
Sheridan, M.D., Howard, J., & Alderson, D. (2011). Play in early childhood. Madison Avenue, New York: Taylor & Francis Group.
Van Hoorn, J., Nourat, P., Scales, B., & Alward, K. (2011). Outdoor play. In Play at the centre of the curriculum (5th ed., pp. 290-316). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Van Oers, B., & Duijkers, D. (2012). Teaching in a play-based curriculum: Theory, practice and evidence of developmental education for young children. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45(4), 511-534. doi: 10.1080/00220272.2011.637182
White, F., Hayes, B., & Livesey, D. (2010). Developmental psychology from infancy to adulthood (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.
Play modes activity
Video from: earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au
Childhood play: The café
Figure 1: Elements of the Early Years Learning Framework
Figure 2: Creative-play curriculum model
• Play provides opportunities for children to learn through discovery, creativity, improvisation and imagination
• Play allows children to test ideas, challenge each other's thinking and build new understandings in a relaxed social setting
• Play provides a supportive environment where children engage in problem solving and critical thinking
• Play can expand children's thinking and prompt their curiosity and desire to learn
(Commonwealth of Australia, 2009)
Enhancing the Curriculum with Materials
• Select materials using an enhanced view of children
• Invent new possibilities for familiar materials
• Choose materials that can be transformed
• Draw on the aesthetic qualities of materials
• Provide real tools and quality materials
• Supply materials to extend children’s interests
• Layer materials to offer complexity
(Catron & Allen, 2008)
"Creative play as its underlying philosophical basis, the development of the whole child as its centre and various components of the invisible and visible curriculum as its framework."
• Flexible, open-ended and responsive to needs
• Integrated, interactive and creative approach
• Foster optimisation or self-actualisation
• Dynamic, supportive and enabling environment
Integrating the Components of the Curriculum Model
(Campbell & Jobling, 2012)
• Knowledge of research and program models
• Integration of theory and practice
• Support children as they strive toward a unique personhood
• Creative play challenges young children toward growth, change and risk
Play promotes children’s social development:
- Children learn rules of cooperation in social interaction
- Children sharpen their communicative and social-cognitive skills
- Children practise self-control
- Play promotes self-confidence in social situations
Play enables the development of emotional well-being:
- Promotes acceptance and expression of emotion
- Develops children’s coping skills
- Facilitates personality integration
- Builds values, such as empathy, trust and respect (Catron & Allen, 2008).